Stuttgart ('ʃ price ɡ art ) is the capital of the German state of Baden-Württemberg with a population of 635,911 (31). December 2019) its largest city. The sixth largest city in Germany is the center of the approximately 2.8 million inhabitants region of Stuttgart, one of the largest metropolitan areas in Germany. It is also the heart of the European metropolitan area of Stuttgart (about 5.3 million inhabitants), the fifth largest in Germany. Stuttgart has the status of a district and is divided into 23 districts. As the seat of the state government and the state parliament of Baden-Württemberg, as well as numerous state and federal authorities, Stuttgart is the political center of the country. It is the seat of the Governing Council of Stuttgart, which manages the district of the same name. In Stuttgart, the regional parliament of the Stuttgart region is meeting, one of the three regions in the Stuttgart district. In addition, Stuttgart is the seat of the Lutheran bishop of Württemberg and part of the Catholic diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart. The city is an important economic and financial center. It is known as the home of the German automobile companies Daimler and Porsche, on the other hand for the most frequent exceedance of the particulate limit value in Germany and the most powerful German conurbation.
coordinates: 48° 47′ N, 9° 11′ E
|Height:||247 m a.s.l. NHN|
|inhabitants:||635,911 (31) Dec. 2019)|
|population density:||3067 inhabitants per km2|
|Vehicle registration number:||S|
|municipal code:||08 1 11 000|
|urban structure:||23 districts, 152 districts|
|Mayor:||Fritz Kuhn (Greens)|
|Situation in the city of Stuttgart in Baden-Württemberg|
Stuttgart’s city scenery is characterized by many hills, partly vineyards, valleys like the Stuttgarter Talkessel and the Neckar Valley, green areas such as the Rosensteinpark, Schlossgarten, Höhenpark, as well as a dense urban construction with a high proportion of post-war buildings, various architectural monuments, churches and some high-rise buildings.
Stuttgart (in the local Swabian dialect Schduagerd) is located in the center of the state of Baden-Württemberg. The city center is located "between woods and vines" in the "Stuttgarter Kessel", a valley basin run through from the northeast to the Neckar river and its tributaries, especially the Vogelsangbach. The neighborhoods range from the north to the Neckar basin, to the west to the Glemswald and the Gäu, to the east to the slopes of the Schurwald forest and to the south to the Filder Plain and to the foothills of the Schönbuch. In the south-east, the Neckar flows into the urban area near the districts of Hedelfingen/Obertürkheim from Esslingen am Neckar and leaves the district of Mühlhausen in the north-east.
The city area - unusually for large cities - stretches over a difference in altitude of almost 350 m. The altitude ranges from 207 meters above sea level. Close to the Neckarsluuse Hofen until 549 m on the Bernhard hill near the Autobahn crossing Stuttgart. The most prominent surveys include the birch head (511 m) at the edge of the valley, the Württemberg (411 m) above the Neckar Valley and the Green Heiner (395 m) at the north-western city border.
The Wuerttemberg with the Chapel
View of Stuttgart from 511 m high birch head
Neckar near Hedelfingen and Obertürkheim
Vineyards in a steep position on the sugar cane
The city of Stuttgart is one of 14 upper centers in Baden-Württemberg. It is the upper center of the Stuttgart region, which, together with the city of Stuttgart and its five counties, houses a total of 2.67 million inhabitants.
In the area of the upper center of Stuttgart (Stuttgart region), the center centers are:
Backnang, Bietigheim-Bissingen/Besigheim, Böblingen/Sindelfingen, Esslingen am Neckar, Geislingen an der Steige, Göppingen, Herrenberg, Kirchheim under Teck, Leonberg, Ludwigsburg/Kornwestheim, Nürtingen, Schorndorf, Vaihingen an der Enz and Waiblingen/Fellbach.
The city of Stuttgart acts as a center for the cities of Leinfelden-Echterdingen and Filderstadt - both located in the Landkreis of Esslingen - as well as for the cities of Ditzingen, Gerlingen and Korntal-Münchingen - all three located in the Landkreis of Ludwigsburg.
The city of Stuttgart is the center of the Stuttgart metropolitan area and one of the three upper centers within it. The Stuttgart metropolitan area has a total population of 5.3 million.
The following cities and municipalities border the state capital Stuttgart. They are called clockwise, starting in the north-east:
Fellbach, Kernen im Remstal (all Rems-Murr-Kreis), Esslingen am Neckar, Ostfildern, Neuhausen on the Fildern, Filderstadt and Leinfelden-Echterdingen (all Landkreis Esslingen), Sindelfingen and Leonberg (Landkreis Böblingen) as well as Gerlingen, Ditzingen, Korntal-Münchingen, Möglingen, Kornwestheim and Remseck am Neckar (all Landkreis Ludwigsburg). Thus, four of the five districts of the Stuttgart region border the Stuttgart district.
The city area of Stuttgart is divided into five "inner" and 18 "outer" districts. The districts have a county council and a county councilor who is only volunteer in the inner districts of the city.
The districts of the city are further divided into districts. The number of districts was determined by the amendment of the 1993 Constitution. 1. 20 January 2009. Since then, the Stuttgart area has been made up of 23 districts and 152 districts (districts on the city map are clickable).
The 20,735 hectares are distributed according to the following scheme:
According to data from the National Statistical Office, as at 2015.
Due to the location in the broad valley basin in Stuttgart and the dense construction there is a comparatively warm and sometimes rotten climate. The heights of the Black Forest, the Swabian Alb, the Schurwald and the Swabian-Franconian Forest also shade the entire region from winds. As a result, even vineyards are possible on the slopes of Stuttgart. With 423 hectares of vineyards, the Stuttgart winegrowing area comprises about 2% of the city area.
The annual average temperature is 9.3 °C (weather station Schnarrenberg) in Stuttgart, 10.6 °C in the city center and in the Neckar Valley and 8.5 °C on the filters at the airport. In winter, the city center, located in the valley, remains mostly snow- and ice-free. Strong "felt" winds are also rare in the city center due to the dense construction. In order to have enough fresh air in the boiler despite the recurrent inversion weather conditions, many places on the slopes - especially in Stuttgart-West - are unbuilt and serve as fresh air trips. The wooded area of red and black wildlife park, located on the west side, also serves as a supplier of fresh air to the lower city center. In order to improve air pollution and reduce particulate matter levels, a ban on the passage of trucks was introduced in 2005, but this was introduced in the context of the introduction of the PM regulation on 1 December 2005. on 21 March 2008. Since March 2010, a new truck transit ban has been in force.
The situation in the region of Stuttgart is the reason why it is one of the low-rainfall regions in Germany. The clouds rain on the Swabian Alb and the Black Forest, so that only relatively dry air gets to Stuttgart. Increased population led to the beginning of the 20th century. In 1917 the first transmission from the Danube via the Alb came into operation (state water supply). In 1959 the Lake Constance water supply followed.
Monthly average temperatures and rainfall for Stuttgart
Source: weather service.de, data 2015-2020; weather account.de;
The Marking of Stuttgart is home to the following nature reserves: According to the regional statistics of the Landesanstalt für Umwelt, Measurements und Naturschutz Baden-Württemberg (LUBW), 1353.19 hectares of the city area are protected by nature, which is 6.53%.
- Wiesnauer Wiesental: 27.8 ha; Gemarken Vaihingen
- Oak: 34.2 ha; Riedenberg and Sillenbuch
- Greutterwald: 151.3 ha (of which 149.4 ha in Stuttgart); Weilimdorf, Zuffenhausen, Feuerbach and Korntal (Landkreis Ludwigsburg)
- hake: 53,6 ha (of which 45 ha in Stuttgart); Plieningen and Kemnat (County Esslingen)
- RotWildpark near Stuttgart (Red and Black Wildlife Park): 830.5 ha; Stuttgart and Vaihingen
- Unteres Feuerbachtal with hilly forests and surroundings: 47.5 ha; Mühlhausen and Zuffenhausen
- Wood of soft roofs and cettach: 226.0 ha; Möhringen and Plieningen
Stuttgart is known throughout the world for its yellow-headed famazon population, the only one in the wild outside of America.
- see also German demography
In 1875, Stuttgart had more than 100,000 inhabitants for the first time and became the first major city in the territory of the present state of Baden-Württemberg. In 1905, the city had 250,000 inhabitants, and by 1950 the number doubled to 500,000. In 1962, the population reached its historic peak at 640,560. The city is the sixth largest city in Germany in terms of population and the second largest city in southern Germany (after Munich and before Nuremberg). In its own state, Stuttgart lies a little further than Karlsruhe and Mannheim.
The average age at the end of 2016 was 41.8 years.
According to the 2011 census, the share of the population with a migrant background was 38.6%. Stuttgart had the second highest share of all major German cities - 44.2 % after Frankfurt am Main and 36.4 % before Nuremberg. The proportion of foreigners was 25.2 % in 2016. 44% of the inhabitants of Stuttgart had a migrant background.
As of 31 December 2018, the register of registrations of the city of Stuttgart registered 614,365 residents with main residence and 6,926 residents with secondary residence.
In 2018 a total of 6534 children were born (2017: 6725); This is 239 births below the 2016 peak. Birth rates rose significantly between 2012 and 2016 and have since declined.
The number of annual deaths in Stuttgart has varied between 5000 and 5700 for two decades. In 2017, 5507 people died and 5471 people died in 2018. The number of births in 2018 exceeded that of deaths by 1063.
The average stock rental in Stuttgart is 9.92 Euro per square meter, which means over Frankfurt am Main (8.87 Euro) and under Munich (10.22 Euro) (stand: end 2017).
The rental price level of the current rental level rose by 7.2% between 2016 and 2018 to 9.60 euros per square meter. The average rent of the apartments offered on the market climbed to EUR 14.15 per square meter in the first half of 2018. Initial rentals in new buildings cost an average of 17 euros per square meter, and re-letting calls cost an average of 13.90 euros per square meter.
Stuttgart belongs to the Lower Swabian language area, a dialect group spoken in the central and south-eastern region of Baden-Württemberg. Linguistic is one of the Alemannic dialects of Swabian and thus the Upper German. It has separated itself from the other Alemannic dialects by the full implementation of the newly highly German diphthonization.
religions and beliefs
According to the 2011 census, 28.6% of the population were Protestant, 24.7% were Roman Catholic, and 46.7% were non-religious, belong to another religious community or did not make any claim. Since then, the number of Protestants and Catholics has fallen and, at almost 55%, the majority of the population are those who do not belong to a religious community that is public and corporal. At present (as at 31 December 2019), 23.0% of the population (141,518) are Protestants, 22.1% (136,080) Catholics and the remaining 54.8% belong to other religions or are non-religious. The share of other religious communities rose from 13.2% in 1970 to 53.7% in 2018.
Figures on other religious communities were collected at the 2011 Census: At that time, 30,680 inhabitants (5.3%) were Christian Orthodox, 5,100 (0.9%) were members of a Protestant free church, 1,330 (0.2%) were Jewish and 30,340 (5.2%) were members of other publicly recognized schools in Baden-Württemberg religious communities (including the Old Catholic Church and various special Christian communities, such as Jehovah's Witnesses).
According to the Stuttgart Statistics Office, the proportion of the Muslim population in Stuttgart was around 10 % in 2017.
In 1534 the Reformation was introduced in the Duchy of Württemberg. This was the origin of the Evangelical Church in Wuerttemberg, which still exists today and is based in Stuttgart. This state church today includes all the evangelical members of the city, unless they are members of an evangelical free church or of the evangelical reformed municipality of Stuttgart. The latter belongs to the Protestant Church, which is based in Leer (East Frisia). The (Lutheran) parishes of the city belong today to the circle of the church of Stuttgart, which was founded on 19 May 1998. January 2008 was founded by the association of the parishes Stuttgart, Bad Cannstatt, Degerloch and Zuffenhausen. The district of Stuttgart is part of the "Sprengel" (Prelatur) in Stuttgart, which is also based in Stuttgart. In Stuttgart there are also many free churches, the Gospel Forum (formerly Biblical religious community) being the largest.
Roman Catholic Church
Since 18. Catholics once again settled the city. At the turn of the 18th 19. In the 19th century they were given their own church. The Cathedral Church of St. Eberhard, built by Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret from 1808 to 1811, is today the Concathedral of the Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart, reconstructed in 1955. In the decades following the beginning of the nineteenth century, more Catholics moved mainly from the rural Catholic districts of NeuWürttemberg to the capital, becoming a steadily growing minority from an initially very small one. The architect Joseph von Egle also created a new Catholic church in the south of Stuttgart, the church of St. Maria built between 1871 and 1879. It was built in the style of neo-gothic. In 1901 to 1902 the church of St. Elisabeth was built under the direction of Joseph Cades in the west of Stuttgart. In the 20th century, many more churches of the Catholic Church in Stuttgart's districts were added, such as the "Liebfrauenkirche" in Cannstatt, also built by Cades between 1907 and 1909. In 2006, the four Stuttgart dekanates that existed until then were merged into a city depot in Stuttgart. The 2011 census counted 150,050 Catholics in the city.
There are several Orthodox churches in Stuttgart. The Serbian Orthodox Church Synaxe of the Serbian Saints (Hram Srba Svetitelja, Х р а м р б is located on Marienplatz since 1971. The Russian Orthodox Church of St. Nikolai (Ц е р к о в ь. Н и о л а я) was consecrated in 1895. After the church was heavily damaged in a bombing in 1944, reconstruction was carried out. In 1972, an iconostasis designed by the famous iconographer Nikolai Schelechov was introduced into the church. The Greek Orthodox Church has two churches in Stuttgart. In the west of Stuttgart you will find the Church of the Christ’s Assumption and in Feuerbach the Church of Saint Apostles Peter and Paul. The Romanian Orthodox Church in Stuttgart was founded in 1964 and uses the Leonhardskirche for its services. The Bulgarian-Orthodox parish of Stuttgart is holding its services in the Serbian and Russian churches. The Macedonian Orthodox Church of St. Kiril and Metodij, which exists in Stuttgart since March 1983, organizes their services in the St. Kiril Church in Zuffenhausen. There are other Orthodox church communities that usually share the church buildings of others. Since September 30, 2012, a parish conference has been held for the current 50,000 Orthodox Church.
Other Christian faiths
The Catharine Square is home to the neo-Gothic catharine church of the old Catholics. The Anglican community is also celebrating its services. The two have had a full church community since 1931.
Since 19. The New Apostolic Church is represented in Stuttgart in the 16th century. In October 1897, the first services of the New Apostolic Church were carried out in the city area and the present municipality of Stuttgart-West was founded. In the following years more municipalities were founded in the city area and built for these corresponding church buildings. The largest church buildings of the New Apostolic Church in Stuttgart are located in Einkornstraße (parish Stuttgart-Ost) and in Immenhofer Strasse (parish Stuttgart-Süd). Due to a concentration process of the church communities, the number of municipalities in the city area is shrinking despite a slight increase in membership, in particular by attraction. In 2008, there were 27 municipalities in the urban area, and there are currently 19 municipalities. Together with the municipalities in the region, they are divided into five legally independent districts. Furthermore, Stuttgart’s Heinestraße is the administrative center for the District Church of Southern Germany, which consists of the two federal states of Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria, as well as other 20 mission countries.
In Stuttgart, in addition to the above-mentioned confessions, there are also communities of almost all known free churches, such as the Seventh Day Adventists, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Apostolate community, the Baptists, the Sanctuary Army and the Methodists.
The beginnings of the medieval Jewish community in Stuttgart are in the dark. In nearby towns such as Esslingen and Heilbronn, as well as in neighboring Leonberg, Jewish communities were occupied in the 13th century, whereas in Stuttgart a Jewish named Loew was only named in 1343, and the Jewish community under Count Ulrich III was occupied. held an important position. At that time, a Jewish community already existed, mostly living in the area of today's Dorotheenstraße. There was the first synagogue in Stuttgart ("Jewish School"); probably on the grounds of Dorotheenstraße 6) and a 1350 first mentioned Jewish alley. This community was destroyed in November 1348 because the Jews were blamed for the plague epidemic, which at that time had not reached the area of Stuttgart. A few decades later, mentioned in 1393, Jews again lived in Stuttgart, now in the St. Leonhards suburb (Esslinger suburb). There was also a Jewish alley and in the Judengasse 12 estate there was the second synagogue in Stuttgart as well as a Mikwe.
After about a hundred years, the Stuttgart Jews were expelled in 1488/98, but the Judengasse retained its name until 1894, when it was renamed Brennerstraße. From 1498 to 1805, no Jews were allowed to live and work permanently in Stuttgart as in the whole of Wuerttemberg after Eberhard I. had ordered their expulsion or detention in a willful manner. However, the ban has been repeatedly breached. For example, the Württemberg court held so-called hope factors to finance its state budget, including Joseph Süß Oppenheimer, who was the victim of an anti-Semitic judicial murder in 1738, Mardochai Schloss, and Karoline Kaulla.
In 1828, the Jews' living conditions were significantly improved by the Gender Equality Act. In 1832 the Jewish community was officially founded (again). The third synagogue, inaugurated in 1837, was replaced in 1861 by a new building in an oriental (Moorish) style on Hospital Street. During the Nazi period, the synagogue was destroyed during the November pogroms in 1938. Many Jews were able to flee persecution abroad; However, at least 1,200 members of the original 4,500-member community (1933) were murdered in the Holocaust.
The new synagogue on the same site was built in 1952 as one of the first synagogue reconstructions of the Federal Republic after the war. The synagogue on Hospital Street 36 is the center of the Israeli religious community of Württemberg, which covers the whole territory of the former states of Württemberg and Hohenzollern. Especially due to the influx of Jews from Eastern Europe, the community has grown strongly since 1990. Today, the Jewish community has some 4,000 members, but only a small part of them practice their faith.
Stuttgart today has a Muslim population of about 65,000 people, mainly due to immigration from Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Arab countries since the time of immigrant workers. In the 1987 census, 22,599 inhabitants declared themselves Muslims. In 2006, the Statistical Office of the State Capital assumed approximately 50,000 Muslims, and in 2009, 60,000 Muslims in Stuttgart. A calculation for May 9, 2011, based on the number of censuses on migrants, showed a number of around 55,000 Muslims (9.4% of the population) in the city. 21 mosques of different religious currents are available to them. There is also a Cemevi of the Aleviten in Bad Cannstatt.
The Buddhist Center Stuttgart was founded under this name in 1986. Buddhism is practiced in the beans district of Stuttgart according to the tradition of the Diamond Way of the Karma-Kagyu Line. The Center is one of more than 600 centers worldwide and is under the spiritual direction of the 17th century. Karmapa Trinley Thaye Dorje and Lama Ole Nydahl.
The Association Die Humanists Baden-Württemberg is a member of the Humanist Association of Germany. The Humanist Center Stuttgart is the seat of the Landesverband and has a children's day center, which is hosted by the Landesverband. Humanists also organize a youth group, organize youth trips, cultural and educational events, name and youth celebrations, and secular wedding and funeral ceremonies.
The Society for Christian-Jewish Cooperation Stuttgart is dedicated to the Jewish-Christian Dialog. Until 2007, Stuttgart was the seat of the umbrella association of Christian Islamic dialog organizations, the coordination council of the Christian Islamic dialog (KCID). Two of its member organizations operate locally.
Stuttgart in Roman times
Due to its location, the Altenburg above the Neckarfurt was the most important place in today's Stuttgart city area. This hill on the left of the river Neckar was already settled in prehistoric times and was built around 90 AD. c. also the oldest settlement in historical times in today's Stuttgart city area: A Roman caste (Castell Cannstatt), which was built to secure the traffic routes that were connected here, in which a cavalry of about 500 people was stationed. Around the castle and east of the Neckar in the area of the present old town of Bad Cannstatt an unfortified civil settlement (vicus) was established. It remained and continued to grow after the castle 159/160 n. c. with the Limes east, to Welzheim (Valentia [?]). Scatter finds indicate a size of this settlement of at least 19 hectares (research level of 1986). The Roman Cannstatt was thus far larger than the medieval Cannstatt (about 10 hectares of walled land) and at the same time one of the largest Roman cities in the present Baden-Württemberg to Ladenburg (Lopodunum) and Rottenburg (Sumelocenna), roughly the same with Wimpfen, Rottda (Arae Flaviae ) and Heidenheim an der Brenz (Aquileia). In Roman times, almost all long-distance traffic from Mainz and the Rheinland to Augsburg and Rätien passed the current Bad Cannstatt. Also in Roman times the rich mineral springs of Bad Cannstatt were apparently already used.
However, large Roman buildings (water pipes, thermal spas, theaters, city walls, forums etc. (e. g. It appears that the population of the city declined significantly in the early 3rd century, as the population of the Roman graves has declined significantly since that time. This small town included a so-called benetizing station and a larger civil brick shop, which produced pottery as well as sophisticated building ceramics. It is secured by excavations that the Romans in the 1st century n. c. wine growing on the Rhine and Moselle, where it has survived the period of international migration. Whether this also applies to the Stuttgart area has not been established with certainty. The vineyard on the Neckar (in Ladenburg) was established in 628 and in Bavaria also in the 7th century.
The end of the Roman Cannstatt came at the latest with the large influx of alemans of 259/260 n. c. The Latin name of the city is unknown.
In the original area of Stuttgart (before the Bad Cannstatt association in 1905) two Roman mansions (villae rusticae) are occupied, one in the hay district and one in the main railway station today, and another brick shop near the main railway station, the remains of which have been discovered during the works for the new railway station. Several other Roman mansions were located in the present city of Stuttgart, one of which was discovered in 1843 and was located in the center of Stuttgart-Münster, about a kilometer north of Bad Cannstatt.
Stuttgart in the International Migration Age and the Early Middle Ages
Until the late 20th century, there was no direct evidence of human presence in the territory of today's Stuttgart from the time of international migration, except for isolated alamanian finds - especially in the 1904 trench of Stuttgart-Feuerbach with burials from the 6th century onwards. However, it was considered certain that the favorable location was always populated. Indirect evidence of settlement continuity was given by some local names with Celtic etymology in and near Stuttgart (e.g. a. the names Württemberg [< Wirtenberg < Celtic *Virodunum], Brag- [in Pragsattel, Pragcemberg], Bopser, Brie (older Brige < Celtic briga), Neckar, probably Cannstatt [< Condistat] and others. a. and analogy decisions with other regions in south-west Germany. The districts of Möhringen, Vaihingen, Plieningen and Hedelfingen in Stuttgart today go at least to the 6th century, as the name indicates. c. back.
The Cannstatt, which was significant in Roman times, was built around 700 n. c. (before/709) as the first place in the area for a donation to the monastery of St. Gallen mentioned in writing. The village, where Christians were already living around the year 500, as evidenced by the tombs, was particularly important for the surrounding area, as a result of the Martinskirche built between 650 and 700 on the site of today's graveyard. It belonged to the Bistum of Konstanz and was the mother church for most of Stuttgart's present city area. Another such church was located in Kornwestheim, built around 635 n. c. and just north of the present town, a third in Plieningen (about 600 n. In the south of the city. These three churches were all dedicated to the Franconian Holy See Martin von Tours and they were the starting points for the Christianization of the Stuttgart area in the 7th century.
It has recently been established that the area of the inner city of Stuttgart was also inhabited during the period of international migration. In 2014, when the main railway station was built, the remains of a 3 th and 4 th century old settlement were discovered in construction field 16 and in the construction area of the Dükers on the Cannstatter Strasse, which is to the north. This discovery from the decades immediately after the 259/260 Limesfall is extraordinary, because the few Alemannic finds of this time were made almost all in high altitudes. The fund includes structures of wooden houses, partly with preserved posts of split oak trees. They have been preserved so well that the buildings can be chronologically dated year-on-year, but this has not yet happened by 2019.
It is also known by excavations from 1998 to 2005 that the area under the Old Castle had been inhabited since the 8th century. Under the Abbey Church burials were found back to the 7th century, the first secured church building on this site dates back to the 10th or 11th century. It was a stone-built, single-naved early Romanesque church of 9.10 meters in width and (including semi-circular apse) about 25.10 meters in length (external dimensions). internal dimensions 6,30 × 15,75 m without apse). Since the conservation status of the finds was poor and even a small part of the area under the abbey church has been examined, an even older church may have been located here. For the adoption of such an early, then probably wooden church structure, the location of the church speaks on the one hand above a merovian-era cemetery and on the other hand the orientation of the Abbey Church: From the 9th century at the latest, newly built churches north of the Alps were always more or less carefully constructed in East-West direction, unless there were compelling reasons against it or other oriented predecessors. With all its predecessors, the Stiftskirche church is almost exactly oriented in the south-west-northeast direction.
The village Immenhofen (in the present hay district southwest of the old town), Tunzhofen (near the main train station east of the old town) and the unsecured Frankenbach also date back to the 7th century. Frankenbach may have been the name of the later Stuttgart town before the foundation of the name-giving stuotgarten (stuotgarten) in 1950 or shortly before.
Founding of the stud in the 10th century
Stuttgart itself was probably founded as a stud farm between 926 and 948 in the Nesenbachtal Valley, five kilometers southwest of the Altenburg, during the Hungarian incursions, when the battle on the Lechfeld near Augsburg ends in 1955. Archeological findings show that a rural settlement had existed here since the late Merosing period. The foundation of Herzog Liudolf von Schwaben is generally attributed to this, which is more of a period after 945. The chosen location was ideal for horse breeding due to the natural conditions of the three-page tallow, but it was rather unfavorable for the development of a larger settlement in contrast to Neckarfurt. Stuttgart's significance was thus only due to its choice as a residence.
1220 urban survey
In the form of stuocards, the name Stuttgart is first mentioned in the Hirsauer Codex around 1160, when a Hugo de Stuokarten departs the monastery Hirsau Stuttgart Goods in the main residence and Sasbach. This name was discovered only in the mid-1950s by archivist Karl Otto Müller and led to a discussion about whether the 800th anniversary of the city of Stuttgart should be celebrated in 1960. It was not possible to see this happening because it was not until 1929 that the city's seemingly 700th anniversary was celebrated.
The settlement near the stud farm came into the possession of the graves of Baden in the year 1200. The 1219 municipal survey by Hermann V. of Baden, which Hansmartin Decker-Hauff brought into play, was not generally accepted. The first documented date for this is March 8, 1229, at which Stuttgart took part in a document from Pope Gregors IX. for which the monastery of Bebenhausen was named. In 1251, Stuttgart was handed over to the Counts of Württemberg as a dowry for Mechthild from Baden. At the latest at this time, a castle existed at the site of the current Old Castle, the construction of which was between the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC. half of the 12th and 1st started half of the 13th century.
In 1286 the Habsburg King Rudolf besieged the city of Stuttgart and grabbed its walls, in 1287 he took over or destroyed all the permanent places in the vicinity of Stuttgart. Graf Eberhard I. from about 1302 a watercastle was built in the place of the present old castle. In the conflict with Emperor Heinrich VII, which led to the Reichsstadt Esslingen imperial war, the Württemberger Stuttgart lost to the Reich, and was therefore administered by Esslingen in 1312-1315. Eberhard was able to take advantage of the political situation that arose after Henry's death and to recover the lost areas. Since the castle of Württemberg was also destroyed by Esslingen in 1311, from 1317 he developed Stuttgart, which was more favorable to the continuing threat posed by Esslingen, by reinforcing the fortifications for a permanent residence in the nascent state of Württemberg. In 1320, the church of St. Martin and the grave of the Wuerttemberg were moved to Stuttgart with a papal permission. (h) The town church was expanded considerably as a parish church. In 1323, the bishop of Konstanz also placed the church of St. Martin under the control of the monastery, which took over its function of decantation. Stuttgart Cannstatt and the Altenburg had surpassed the mark at the latest. Already at the end of the 14th A first suburb was built in the south-east outside the Stuttgart city fortifications: the Esslinger or Leonhardsvorstadt, named after the Leonhardskapelle around which it was formed. end of 15. In the 19th century Ulrich V created the planned upper suburb in the northwest, in the center of which a Dominican monastery with today's Hospital Church was built. Due to the temporary division of Württemberg, Stuttgart was only the capital of a part of the country in 1442-1482. In 1457, the first demonstrable state parliament of the Wuerttemberg counties for the Stuttgart district took place in Stuttgart. The same year, a state parliament for the Uracher district took place in Leonberg.
Residence of the Duchy of Württemberg
Stuttgart became Duchy's residence in 1495 with the elevation of Eberhards in the Bart to the duke. In 1520-1534, the city was occupied by farmers during the 1520s and 1534s, as was the whole of Württemberg, and in the 1525s it was occupied by farmers during the peasant war. In 1534 Ulrich introduced the Reformation when he returned through Erhard Schnepf. Under the reign of Herzog Christoph, a new fortification was built in 1565, which included the suburbs, and the castle was converted and extended by Aberlin Tretsch in 1553-1570/78 to become a representative Renaissance castle. The increased drinking water demand in Stuttgart necessitated significant water-building measures with the construction of the Lake Pfaffensee in the Glemstal above Stuttgart and the construction of the Christophstollen to transfer the water to the Nesenbachtal in 1566-1575. Between 1584 and 1593 the New Lusthaus was founded. In 1595, Heinrich Schickhardt set up the forerunner of today's Schillerplatz. The Thirty Years' War left devastating traces. After the battle at Nördlingen, the young duke Eberhard, his councils and four members of the Landscape Committee fled to Strasbourg in exile. The four-year direct rule of the Habsburgs over Wuerttemberg from 1634 to 1638 led to constant strains for Stuttgart as well as through the placement of hostile troops. King Ferdinand III. In 1634 and 1636 several times came to Stuttgart and planned the recatholzation of Wuerttemberg. In 1637 the plague raged in Stuttgart. The population halved from a pre-war level of about 10,000 to under 5,000 in 1648. Among them were only 600 men. In 1650, a first bookstore opened. In 1686 the first high school was founded. In 1688, French troops appeared under General Mélac in the framework of the Palatinate hereditary war. Thanks to the diplomacy of the ruling duchess widow Magdalena Sibylla, Stuttgart was spared the fate of Heidelberg, which was destroyed in the war. In 1718, Herzog Eberhard Ludwig moved his residence to Ludwigsburg, where the baroque castle was built between 1704 and 1733. It was only under the reign of Herzog Karl Alexander that Stuttgart regained its old position as the main residence. After the death of the duke Karl Alexander, the anti-Semitic murder of his financial adviser Joseph Süß Oppenheimer took place. In 1744, Herzog was declared to have oral authority to Carl Eugen. In 1746 he laid the foundation stone for the construction of the New Castle. Other construction projects included the castles Solitude and Hohenheim. In addition, the construction of the "Hochkarlsschule Stuttgart" (Karlsschule Stuttgart) at the end of 18. This is a short-term university location. Friedrich Schiller, who studied medicine there, was a renowned figure in this institution. However, Stuttgart was still at the end of the 18th century. This is a very provincial town with narrow streets, cattle rearing, peasant-growing population and about 20,000 inhabitants, excluding court staff and military personnel of the Württemberg Army. In 1794, the High School of Karlsschule was dissolved again under the leadership of Herzog Ludwig Eugen, for reasons of economy and fear of the emergence of revolutionary ideas.
Capital of the Kingdom of Württemberg
In 1806, during the Napoleonic Wars and the founding of the Rheinbund, Stuttgart gained a reputation. The former residence town of the Duchy of old Wuerttemberg has now become the capital of the new state of the extended kingdom of Württemberg. After the conclusion of the Vienna Congress in 1815, the existence of the new state of Württemberg was finally confirmed, Stuttgart experienced in the 19th century. In the 19th century, it gradually rose from the close of a small town characterized by the evangelical Pietism to the mixed confessional metropolis of Württemberg.
The first Cannstatter Volksfest took place in 1818, and in 1820 the Grabkapelle on the Wuerttemberg was established at the place of the old Wuerttemberg tribe. At the beginning of the 19th In the 19th century, buildings such as the Castle of Rosenstein, the Wilhelmspalais, the State Gallery and the Royal Palace were built. Educational institutions such as the arable school founded in 1818, the United Real and Business School founded in 1829, and the Stuttgart Music School founded in 1857 are going to the early and mid 19th century. 19th century. The tradition of Stuttgart as a city of literature was founded in the 19th century. It is represented by countless writers who lived there. Names such as Wilhelm Hauff, Ludwig Uhland, Gustav Schwab and Eduard Mörike are of supra-regional importance.
At the national festival for the 25th King Wilhelms I. On September 28, 1841, the Wuerttemberger Fortress was held in Stuttgart with 10,390 participants and 200,000 spectators. The jubilee column of Johann Michael Knapp, completed only in 1863, is still reminiscent of this event today.
22. On October 1845, the first railway in Wuerttemberg departed from the upper city of Cannstatt to Untertuerkheim, from 15. October 1846 also through the Rosenstein tunnel to Stuttgart (Alter Centralbahnhof near Schloßplatz).
In late May 1849, the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV rejected the imperial deputation. The Frankfurt National Assembly moved to Stuttgart at the invitation of Friedrich Römer, the minister of justice of the state of Baden - Wuerttemberg. The so - called truncated parliament only met until the 18 th June, when it was violently dissolved.
The two-emperor meeting, held in 1857, received international attention.
The population of today's Stuttgart grew steadily as industrialization began. In 1834 Stuttgart had 35,200 inhabitants, in 1852 the 50,000 inhabitants were exceeded, in 1864 there were 69,084 inhabitants in Stuttgart, and in the year of the Reichsfounding, in 1871, the city had 91,000 inhabitants. In 1874, Stuttgart became a major city with the 100,000 inhabitants being exceeded. This number doubled, including through the introduction, until shortly after the turn of the century (1901: approximately 185,000, 1904: approximately 200,000).
The extent and pace of population growth in the second half of the 19th century. There were many differences in the present urban area. Between 1851 and 1900, the city of residence (+248%) and Gaisburg (+428%) and Cannstatt (+298%) experienced strong growth. The emerging industrial sites along the new railway lines Cannstatt-Untertürkheim-Obertürkheim-Esslingen and Cannstatt-Stuttgart-Feuerbach-Zuffenhausen-Ludwigsburg also became growth magnets. From 1879 the Stuttgart-Freudenstadt Gäubahn was added, and the population of Vaihingen and Rohr began to grow rapidly. Finally, the bypass line Untertürkheim-Kornwestheim (Schusterbahn) also came in Münster at the end of the 19th century. This is a century of strong population growth.
In the 1880s and 1890s, Gottlieb Daimler (1834-1900) laid the foundations for the first automobiles in Cannstatt near Stuttgart. In 1887 he founded the Daimler Engines Society there. After a fire of the plant, the new engine plant was built on Unterturkheimer Gemarken in 1903, where the company headquarters of Daimler AG today are now again.
In 1907 an International Socialist Congress was held in Stuttgart. 60,000 people attended the opening.
In 1914, the construction of the existing railway station building on the design of the architect Paul Bonatz began at the northern end of the city center.
During World War I, there were air strikes on the city: 22. In September 1915, the highest number of bombs, 29, fell in the vicinity of the station and the nearby red-boiled barracks, killing three soldiers and injuring 43. Likewise, four civilians died. The second major attack on the 15th In September 1918, 11 people died when a house collapsed in the Heusteigstraße, which was co-caused by previous bush.
Capital of the state of Württemberg
30. In November 1918, the Kingdom of Württemberg became a part of the events of the November Revolution in the German Länder, after the renunciation of King Wilhelms II. the crown (Revolutionaries stormed his residence, the Wilhelmspalais), to the free state of Württemberg within the Weimar Republic. 26. On 25 April 1919, the country adopted a new constitution, which was finally adopted on 25 April 1919. was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 23 September 1919. In 1920 the city was the seat of the Reichsregierung for a few days (see Kapp-Putsch).
During the Weimar Republic, Stuttgart developed into an economic and cultural center in the German southwest and belonged in particular to the architecture of the modern (e.g. a. dayleaf tower, municipal bath Heslach, department store Schocken, Weißenhofsiedlung) to the urban pioneers.
Center in NS-Gau Württemberg-Hohenzollern
By combining the administration of Württemberg with the centralization of Germany at the beginning of the National Socialism in 1933, Stuttgart became politically meaningless in its position as state capital, but remained the cultural and economic center in the central Neckar region. Württemberg was combined with the Hohenzollernschen Landen to form the Gau of the NSDAP Württemberg-Hohenzollern.
During the period of National Socialism, the city held the honorary title "City of Foreign Germans" (see city honorary title of the Nazi period), as the seat of the German Foreign Institute was located in Stuttgart.
The Gestapo took over the Silver Hotel in the Dorotheenstraße, where political opponents of the regime were imprisoned and tortured. "Silver" was also used for numerous celebrities in transit camps for concentration camps or for murder, for example for Eugen Bolz, Kurt Schumacher or Lilo Herrmann. In 1988, the latter established a group of students and citizens between the collegiate buildings in Keplerstraße a memorial. The Nazi regime continued to use the Landgericht in Archivstrasse 12A as a central execution site in the south-west German area, where at least 419 people were killed. A memorial in the Lichthof reminds of this.
In November 1938 the Old Synagogue was burned and the cemetery chapel of the Jewish community destroyed. Most of Stuttgart's male Jewish citizens were immediately arrested by Gestapo and taken to the police prison of Welzheim or Dachau. Since 1947, the Israeli part of the Pragpeachof has been commemorating Friedhofstrasse 44 a memorial by the sculptor K. Löffler will give the 2498 Jews of Wuerttemberg who died in the show.
The monument at the North Station commemorates the deportation of the Stuttgart Jews after 1939. Only about 60 percent of German Jews were able to flee until the ban on emigration on October 1, 1941. The Jews who lived in Wuerttemberg and Hohenzollern were forced during the war to move to so-called Jewish homes or forced-retirement homes, then they were "concentrated" by the Stapoleitstelle Stuttgart on the Killesberg exhibition grounds. On December 1, 1941, the first transport train, carrying around 1000 people, went to Riga, where they were murdered. Up until the last weeks of the war, more trains followed with about 2500 Jews from the region. Only 180 of these Württemberg concentration camp prisoners survived.
Towards the end of World War II, large parts of the city were destroyed during the Anglo-American air attacks on Stuttgart. The most serious attack took place on 12 March 2006. The Royal Air Force took the city to the old town of Stuttgart on 17 September 1944. 75 heavy air mines, 4300 bombs and 180,000 fire bombs were dropped. More than 1000 people were killed in the subsequent fire. In total, Stuttgart was attacked 53 times. 68% of all residential buildings and 75% of industrial installations were destroyed. A total of 4477 people were killed and 8908 injured in Stuttgart. 21. April 1945 French troops occupied Stuttgart.
Following the occupation of Stuttgart by French occupation forces, at least 1389 rapes occurred in Stuttgart. 8. July 1945 the French occupying forces handed over Stuttgart to US soldiers following several calls; From then on, the city belonged to the American occupation zone. Stuttgart was the capital of the state of Württemberg-Baden from 1945 to 1952.
The Military Administration set up a DP warehouse in Stuttgart to accommodate so-called Displaced Persons (DP). Most of them were ex-forced laborers from Central and Eastern Europe in the region's industries. The DP camp Stuttgart-West in Reinsburgstraße housed only more than 1400 Jewish survivors of the Holocaust. During a raid on the morning of March 29, 1946, the camp was closed by about 130 police officers and 80 officers. According to police, the reason for this was the fight against the black market. A shooting occurred during a violent clash between the camp's inhabitants and the police following the arrest of a boy. Samuel Danziger, a Polish Jew who had just survived the Auschwitz concentration camp, died from a head shot from a police pistol. This event resulted in the German police acting on orders from General Joseph T. McNarney, the commander-in-chief of US forces in Europe, was no longer allowed to enter a DP camp in the US zone without permission from the US military administration. The camp was closed in 1949 and the remaining DPs were moved to a DP camp in Heidenheim, Brenz.
The city's candidacy in 1948 as the new capital of the still to be established Federal Republic failed mainly because of the financial burden (one million DM per year for rents). In addition to Stuttgart, the cities of Frankfurt/Main, Kassel and Bonn applied; A committee of the Parliamentary Council had previously examined all cities for their suitability.
In the post-war years, the ideological drive of the new mayor of Stuttgart Arnulf Klett was largely abandoned in the reconstruction of historical reconstructions, especially in the building-culturally important Stuttgart market square. Much of the city's ruins therefore came to the rubble mountain Birkenkopf. Most of the reconstruction was done according to modernist ideals and the Athens Charter, with functional divisions between residential, commercial, and industrial areas. The idea was to create a car-friendly city. In this way, entire roads and squares that were not or hardly damaged were torn down. In the 150th In 1955, when Friedrich Schiller died, the last remnants of his Alma Mater, the high school of Karlsschule near the New Castle, were removed to create space for the expansion of the state road 14 (Konrad-Adenauer-Straße). This rigorous construction policy has already been criticized by contemporaries in part.
Capital of the State of Baden-Württemberg
On 25 April 1952, Württemberg-Baden was united with the Land of Baden and the Land of Württemberg-Hohenzollern. Since then, Stuttgart has been the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg.
The population, which in recent years has fallen by almost half (April 1942: approximately 498,000, April 1945: About 266,000), the influx of homeless people from the former East German territories in the late 1940's and the 1950's increased massively again. In 1962, the city reached its highest population, with about 640,000 inhabitants. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the first guest workers arrived in the Stuttgart region as a result of labor shortages and economic miracle in post-war West Germany. These were originally mainly from Italy, later also from Greece and a large part from the former Yugoslavia, and from the 1970s also from Turkey.
Major media events were the state visits of French President Charles de Gaulle on 9 March. 19 September 1962 and the British Queen Elisabeth II. 24. May 1965 in Stuttgart.
In 1975, the Stuttgart Penitentiary, which was established between 1959 and 1963 in the Stuttgart Higher Regional Court, was extended to include a high-security offense against leading members of the far-left terrorist organization RAF. Andreas Baader, Ulrike Meinhof, Gudrun Ensslin and Jan-Carl Raspe were from 1975 until their suicides on the 9th of September. 18 May 1976 (Meinhof) October 1977 (Death Night of the Home) in this part of the Stuttgart-Stamm prison. (see also German Autumn).
1. On 3 October 1978, the S-Bahn in Stuttgart started operating on scheduled routes. In 1979, 178 million passengers were carried. The number increased to around 374 million by 2018. (See also transport)
From 17 to 19. The Heads of State and Government of the EC met in Stuttgart on 16 June 1983 for a summit.
The European Athletics Championships were held in 1986 at the Neckarstadion.
Another major media event was the visit of Michael Gorbachev on 14 May. June 1989, when the high point of the castle was a large reception.
In 1993, Stuttgart hosted the International Garden Exhibition and the World Athletics Championships.
In 2003, the city's bid for the 2012 Olympic Games failed in its national preselection, when the NOK chose Leipzig.
In 2006, as in 1974, Stuttgart was one of the venues for the World Cup, where the match for third place took place.
In the summer of 2010, the city became a public sight because of the protests against the Stuttgart 21 railway project.
Stuttgart's current state is the result of several communal waves. The area of the inner city area was at the beginning of the 20th Century when Gaisburg (1901) was conurbated. century essentially completed; the later colonization of the Cold Valley (1922) and the assignment of the head of the women (by Rohracker in 1948) finally rounded the area of the inner city area.
From 1905 onwards, all municipalities gradually formed the areas of the outer urban area. 1. On 13 April 1942, the municipalities were closed with the compulsory assignment of the home and the southern suburbs of the fills. In the post-war period, no further contributions were added, even during the major territorial reform in Baden-Württemberg in the mid-1970s.
|date or year||places||increment in ha|
|1860||Heslach, Ostheim, Gablenberg|
|Apr 1, 1901||Gaisburg||253.8|
|Apr 1, 1905||Cannstatt (association with Stuttgart, no communal; from 24 July 1933: Bad Cannstatt), Untertürheim, Wangen||2568.1|
|Aug. 1, 1908||nozzle||718.4|
|Apr. 1, 1922||Botnang, Hedelfingen, Kaltental, Obertürkheim||2016.2|
|Apr. 1, 1923||Brühl (breakdown by Esslingen)||-28.2|
|July 1, 1929||furnace||280.1|
|Apr. 1, 1931||access||921.3|
|May 1, 1931||Rotenberg||163.3|
|July 1, 1931||Münster||360.5|
|May 1, 1933||Feuerbach, Weil in the village (from 19 April 1955: Weilimdorf), Mühlhausen (including Mönchfeld), Zazenhausen||3283.1|
|Apr. 1, 1937||Heumaden (incl. Lederberg), Rohracker (incl. Frauenkopf), Sillenbuch, Uhlbach||1312.0|
|Apr 1, 1942||Birkach (incl. Riedenberg and Schönberg with Kleinhohenheim), Fasanenhof, Hohenheim, Möhringen (incl. Sonnenberg), Plieningen, Solitude, Root Home, Vaihingen (incl.||5818.7|
In the times of the County or Duchy of Württemberg the administration of the city of Stuttgart was led by a Vogt. He was appointed to his post by the count and duke respectively and was able to be dismissed by the count as he wishes. After the administration was split into a city supervisor and an office (for the surrounding area), both authorities were headed by a city supervisor or an office supervisor. In 1811, the city's chief administrative officer was appointed city director.
In 1819, after the introduction of the right to self-government of the municipalities in Württemberg, which was elevated to the kingdom, towns and municipalities were given a certain say in the appointment of the head of the town, who was in the future called Schultheiß, in cities Stadtschultheiß. The mayor was in Wuerttemberg at that time only a special name that the king could give. It was not awarded to all the city classmates in Stuttgart. It was only with the entry into force of the 1930 Wuerttemberg municipal code that the title Oberbürgermeister was officially introduced for all cities with more than 20,000 inhabitants.
After 1918, when the Kingdom of Württemberg was dissolved, the city lost its importance as a residential city; It became the capital of the state of Württemberg within the German Empire, known as the Weimar Republic. During the Cape putsch in March 1920, Stuttgart was the seat of the Reichsregierung for a few days.
After World War II, Stuttgart was the capital of the state of Württemberg-Baden and since 1952 has been the capital of Baden-Württemberg.
The first municipal elections took place in the American-occupied zone very early after the end of the war. In Stuttgart, the election day came to May 26, 1946. Before the end of the two-year term, the second municipal elections, with a six-year term, took place on 7 December 1947. From 1947 to 1971, half of the municipal council (30) was elected in three years' intervals ("the rolling system of the renewal elections"). The term of office of the municipal councils was six years. Since 1975 the entire municipal council has been elected for five years.
The electoral system in Stuttgart is a proportional system in which the voter has very wide-ranging influence in voting through cumulation (multiple votes to a candidate of up to three) and paneling (compiling names from different lists). In total, each voter has as many votes as municipal councils (60). The Sainte-Laguë method has been used for seat distribution since 2014. There is no blocking clause.
After World War II, the non-partisan lawyer Arnulf Klett was mayor of Stuttgart from 1945 to 1974, then the lawyer Manfred Rommel (CDU) from 1974 to 1997, and then the lawyer Wolfgang Schuster (CDU) from 1997 to 2010 3. On 21 October 2012, the linguist Fritz Kuhn (Alliance 90/The Greens) was elected Mayor. He took office on 7 January 2013.
The election as mayor of Stuttgart took place on 8 November 2020, incumbent Kuhn did not run for re-election and none of the candidates won an absolute majority.
In all 23 districts there is the possibility to form youth councils - some of them since 1995. There are currently 12 bodies in 15 districts. Project groups exist in districts where there were too few candidates. All young people between the ages of 14 and 18 who have lived in the district for at least three months are eligible to vote. The number of seats depends on the number of inhabitants. The term of office is two years, the last elections being held from 18 January to 5 February 2016. Each of the youth councils sends three, each of the active project groups one delegate to the Stuttgart youth council working group. He shall elect from among his ranks three equal spokespersons representing him and other representatives to various committees of the city.
The coat of arms of the city of Stuttgart shows a rising black horse - the so-called "Stuttgarter Rössle" - in a golden field. The coat of arms in its present form has been in official use since 11 April 1938. The city colors are black and yellow. The city flag was awarded on 10 July 1950 by the Württemberg-Baden Council of Ministers.
The first image of the city wall in Stuttgart still remains from the city seal of 1312. It shows two horses of unequal size (heraldic) moving to the right in the early and high Gothic triangle sign. In 1433, the city’s coat of arms was changed. The plaque shows a horse (heraldic) galloping to the right in the late Gothic circular sign. This form of arches served essentially as an official city coat of arms in Stuttgart until the 19th century. century. The presentation of the horse has been changed several times over the years. It was screaming, running, galloping, jumping, rising and pointed. In 1938, the present form prevailed. Originally, his base color was silver, first in 1699 after a coat of arms, gold. This color gradually followed the Württemberg domestic colors in the second half of the 19th century. century. It is a "talking" coat of arms, that is to say, the original stud to which the city is supposed to go is illustrated here.
The sportscar manufacturer Porsche - based in Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen - runs the city coat of arms in slightly modified form in its company logo. However, the similarity of the coat of arms to that of the Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari is by chance: It goes back to Francesco Baracca, the most successful Italian fighter in World War I. He decorated his plane with a growing horse that he had derived from the coat of arms of the cavalry region where he had previously served, the Reggimento Piemonte Reale Cavalleria. The mother Baraccas suggested to Enzo Ferrari that the symbol be used as a good-luck charm on his cars. Ferrari did so from 1932. The black horse was inferred with the yellow coat of arms of his hometown Modena. In this composition, a coat of arms was created which resembles the one in Stuttgart.
Stuttgart was one of the pioneers in the field of town-twinning in post-war Europe. Three years after the end of World War II, the city entered into a partnership with St. Helen’s in the country of the former war opponent of Great Britain. Today, Stuttgart maintains town twinning with the following ten cities on four continents:
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In addition, the following city friendships will be maintained:
- Ogaki, Japan, since 1988
- Nanjing, People's Republic of China
- Shavei Zion, Israel
In the course of Franco-German friendship, the Zuffenhausen district has been connected with the French city of La Ferté-sous-Jouarre since 1977, Vaihingen since 1985 with Melun. Bad Cannstatt also has a partnership since 1996 with the similarly mineral water rich Újbuda, the XI. Budapest District, Hungary.
These cities can be found in paths or bridges named after them. Several trams in Stuttgart are named after partner cities (see SSB DT 8#name).
Culture and sights
opera, theater and ballet
The Stuttgart State Theater are the largest three-division theater in the world, with its opera opera, Stuttgart, ballet and Schauspiel Stuttgart. The main playgrounds are located in the Upper Schlossgarten and were built in 1909 to 1912 by the Munich architect Max Littmann as the Royal Theater of the Court: The opera house (formerly "Grand House"), the theater (formerly "Small House") was destroyed in the Second World War and replaced in the same place between 1959 and 1962 by a new building designed by Hans Volkart. In addition, the Kammertheater (opened in 1983) and the Studiobühne Nord (opened in 2010) are the venues of the State Theater. The state theaters perform almost a thousand performances per season. The opera Stuttgart has been elected the opera house of the year six times. The Stuttgart ballet is one of the world’s leading ballet companies.
The Stuttgart theaters consist of the venues Das Alte Schauspielhaus and Comedy in Marquardt. The Old Theater was built in 1909 on the site of a former barracks and was the most prestigious theater in the city until the reopening of the Small House of the State Theater in 1962. The comedy at the Marquardt was founded in 1951 in the former Hotel Marquardt and is primarily a source of comedy entertainment. The theaters in Stuttgart are the most spectators in Baden-Württemberg and are therefore among the top five of the German theaters.
For more than 20 years the "FITZ" - Center for Figurine Theater in the cultural area "Unterm Turm", in which the JES - Junges Ensemble Stuttgart - has been located since 2003. You will also find the tri-stage theater.
The seat of the Forum Theater is located in the center of youth and culture Forum 3. In the first place there are dramatic and theatrical content.
The Friedrichsbau Varieté was founded in 1994 in a Rotunde in the new building of the Friedrichsbau on a historical basis after the splendid Art Nouveau building had completely burnt out in the Second World War. The theater moved to Pragsattel in 2014 after the owner had canceled it.
The art of mime has a unique and special significance in Stuttgart. This is due to the Pantomimeater Makal City Theater GmbH, which can be seen as a guest play and tour theater, as well as the International Pantomime Theater, which has its home in the east of Stuttgart with all-year-round Pantomime events and shows with Schwarzem Theater. In addition, there is a possibility to learn the art of playing pantomime at a professional level. The founder of the mime in Germany is the master mime Peter Makal "Ambassador of Art".
The cabaret stage in the west of Stuttgart, Rosenau, has a long history rich in tradition. It also serves as a young stage in cabaret, comedy and small art. Due to the special combination of cultural and culinary offerings, the Rosenau is also known as the "living room of the West".
The most renowned literary cabaret in Stuttgart is the Renitztheater. Founded in 1961, it is the oldest cabaret stage in the city.
Since 1972, the puppeteers in the "Theater am Faden" have had the puppets and puppets danced, which they have often made themselves. Other theaters for figures include the "Theater in the Bath" in the Killesberg park and the "Theater Tredeschin" in Haußmannstrasse. The "Theater La Plapper-Papp" has been known as a pole puppet theater since 1960.
The theater of the Old Town in the West can be found on the Rotebühlstraße after the first wooden construction burnt out in 1969 and thus 11 years after construction.
Nelly's doll theater plays with dolls and puppets for children aged three and older. In the same building, the theater on Olgaeck plays, which focuses on cultural exchanges with Eastern Europe.
The Theater House Stuttgart started its life in the Wangen district in 1984 - since 2000 at the Pragsattel, where the Stuttgart Theater Prize is awarded annually. Since 2008 the theater house has a solid ballet company with Gauthier Dance.
A platform for the freelance dance and performance art in Stuttgart, the production center Dance and Performance in the old rock cellar in Stuttgart-Feuerbach offers.
The "Rotebühlplatz" meeting place is known for its dance, theater, international solo dance theater festival and new music.
The State Academy of Music and Performing Arts in Stuttgart has the Wilhelma Theater in Bad Cannstatt.
Close to the Wilhelma Theater, the Theater Ship has been located at the Mühlgren landing stage in Bad Cannstatt since 2008. On the converted inland waterway vessel, comedies and cabarets are the main features.
In the Werastraße you will find the "Wortkino".
The oldest amateur theater in Stuttgart, the ABV-Zimmertheater (founded in 1921, the theater department of the General Education Association 1863 e. V. Stuttgart) plays in the building of the former state parliament in Heusteigstraße.
Among others, the Swabian Volkstheater plays "Boulevärle", "Stuttgarter Komödle", "d'Scheureburzler" and "Neugereuter Theater".
The SI-Centrum houses two musical theaters - the Stage Palladium Theater and the Stage Apollo Theater. Here were among others the German premieres of Miss Saigon (1994), Die Schöne und das Biest (1997), Dance of the Vampire (2000), 42nd Street (2003), Wicked - The Witches of Oz (20 7), Rebecca (2011), Mary Poppins (2016) and Anastasia (2018).
The Merlin Cultural Center offers cultural programs in the areas of music, cabaret, theater, performance, literature, short film and children's theater.
In Stuttgart there are five of the 11 state museums in Baden-Württemberg, such as the Old and New State Gallery. Opened in 1843 and expanded in 1984 with the new building, the Staatsgalerie enjoys European attention. Art from 14. From the beginning of the 19th century to the modern, the architecturally interesting spaces include works by Cranach the Elder, Rubens, Rembrandt, Monet, Renoir, Cézanne, Picasso and Beuys.
The Württemberg National Museum is located in the Old Castle. Founded in 1862 by Wilhelm I, King of Württemberg, it dates back to the 16th century. In the 19th century, the dukes gathered together everything that was rare, precious and unusual. It presents the history of the country from the Stone Age to the modern age. In addition to the headquarters, there are two additional branches in Stuttgart and eight branches in Baden-Württemberg.
The House of History Baden-Württemberg was founded in 1987. In 2002, it received its own museum building at Stuttgart's cultural mile. National history, typical objects and a theme park that places contemporary problems in a historical context are the three most important topics. The House of History has five branches in the country.
Nature and fossil science are the cornerstones of the Stuttgart State Museum of Natural History, which has two branches in the Rosensteinpark: The museum at the Löwentor and the Museum Castle of Rosenstein. The first is dedicated to the numerous fossil finds in Baden-Württemberg. A large part of the exhibition includes everything about dinosaurs. The Museum of Natural History, which has been housed in the Castle of Rosenstein since 1954, was founded in 1791 as a "collection of natural aliens". The biological collection is a magnet for the public and the scientific collection is one of the most important in Europe.
The Linden Museum is a museum of people. Its origins date back to 1882 and since 1911 it has been built in its own style. It is one of the largest museums of the world in Europe and provides information on Africa, East, South Asia, East Asia, South America, South America and South America. Particular attention should be paid to the permanent exhibitions on ethnic minorities outside Europe.
In addition to these state-owned museums there are many other museums in the state capital. The Municipal Art Museum Stuttgart was opened in March 2005 as the "successor museum" of the gallery of the city of Stuttgart. In the first year after the opening of the hotel, it became an attraction with 330,000 visitors. Its exposed location in the pedestrian area of Königsstraße contributes to this as does the exceptional architecture of a strict glass cube covering the exhibition rooms. Modern art is essentially a collection. It houses the most important collection of works by Otto Dix. The Wilhelmspalais, which has been converted to the city of Palais, has been home to the City Museum since April 2018.
With almost 550,000 visitors in 2009, the Mercedes-Benz Museum is the most visited museum in the city. Since 1923 the company has been collecting vehicles. In 2006 the Mercedes-Benz world was opened. On their way through the museum designed by UNStudio, visitors experience a journey through the 120-year history of automobiles. Historical vehicles from the first car in the world to the legendary silver arrows to the present of the Mercedes-Benz brand are to be seen. The Porsche Museum in Zuffenhausen, which opened in 1976, was open until the completion of the new museum on 31 October 2006. January 2009 about 20 constantly changing exhibits. In the meantime about 80 vehicles can be visited in this new building, which is extremely interesting in architectural terms, and models are also shown here in different ways.
The Hegelhaus (birthplace of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel) presents the life of the philosopher born in Stuttgart. Several lapidaries are in and around Stuttgart. The tram museum documents the history of Stuttgart trams (SSB) with historical vehicles from 1868 to 1986 as well as objects from operation and technology. In the firemen's museum in Stuttgart (Münster) the development of fire fighting is described. In 2002, the Theodor Heuss House was opened on the Killesberg and since then has shown the life of the first President of the Confederation, Theodor Heuss, in his former home. The memorial "Signs of Remembrance" at the North Railway Station reminds us that during the period of National Socialism between 1941 and 1945, more than 2000 Jews were deported from Stuttgart and Württemberg.
Libraries and archives
The regional library for Baden-Wuerttemberg is the regional library for the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg with the BLB in Karlsruhe. WLB is specifically responsible for the districts of Stuttgart and Tübingen. In particular, the Landesbibliothek is dedicated to the procurement, development, archiving and provision of the document about Württemberg, the so-called Württembergica. Together with BLB, it also has the required copy right for Baden-Württemberg (since 1964, previously only for Württemberg) and is thus an archive library.
The University Library Stuttgart (UBS) is a central institution of the University of Stuttgart. It is the center of the university’s library system and provides research, teaching and study with literature and other information. It is open to the citizens of the city, as well as to members of the university. Together with other scientific libraries and documentation centers in the area of Stuttgart - such as the University Library of Hohenheim - the UBS forms the library information system of the region of Stuttgart (BISS).
Since 2011, the Stuttgart City Library has been under construction by South Korean architect Eun Young Yi on Milan Square.
The main State Archives in Stuttgart are the archives for the ministries of Baden-Württemberg. Since 1965 it has been located right next to WLB and since 2005 it has been part of the Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg. It contains the collections of the county or duchy of Württemberg until 1806, the central authorities of Württemberg from the 19th and 20th centuries. and the beginning of the 19th century. This was the result of the mediatization of the dominions and imperial cities of Württemberg.
The Stuttgart municipal archive is the archive for the state capital Stuttgart. It preserves the historical and pictorial property of the municipal authorities and collects the estates of important people and institutions in the city’s history as well as individual documents and pictures of Stuttgart’s history. The material stored in the archive is in principle publicly available and can be viewed in the reading room in Bellingweg 21 in Bad Cannstatt.
The State Church Archives keep the holdings of the church leaders of Württemberg and other church bodies and institutions: the Herzokely and Royal Consistory of the Evangelical Church Council, the Decanate and Parish Archives, the educational institutions, the works and associations, as well as discounts and collections. It also has the microfilms of all church books (v. a. divorce, marriage, death and family register) from the area of the Evangelical Church in Württemberg. These are available on the Internet via the archival portal Archion, also based in Stuttgart.
The "AnStifter Archive" is dedicated to the dead of the city. Since 2005 the AnStifter have been working on a reminder book about "The Dead of the City". To date, some 5000 names have been registered by victims of the Nazism regime.
- State Orchestra Stuttgart (Orchestra of the State Theater of Württemberg) with more than 400 years of history; the forerunner was first mentioned in a document in 1589 as the Wuerttemberg Chapel; Director General of Music is Sylvain Cambreling
- Stuttgart Philharmonic; founded in 1924
- SWR Symphony Orchestra of South West Radio (SWR); In 2016, the SWR Symphony Orchestra of Baden-Baden and Freiburg merged with the SWR Symphony Orchestra Stuttgart, which was founded in 1946.
- Stuttgart Chamber Orchestra e. V. founded in 1945 by Karl Münchinger
- SWR Big Band Stuttgart founded in 1951 as a "South Radio Tanzorchester"
- Junges Kammerorchester Stuttgart; Head: Alexander Scherf, founded in 1960 as "Jugendkammerorchester Stuttgart"
- Daimler Sinfonieorchester Stuttgart; founded in 1979
- Christophorus Symphonie Orchester founded in 1969
- pupil symphony orchestra Stuttgart; founded in 1990
- Stuttgarter Liederkranz; founded in 1824
- Stuttgart choir
- Knabenchor collegium iuvenum Stuttgart
- Domkapelle St. Eberhard
- maiden church at the Cathedral of St. Eberhard, founded in 1994 by Martin Dücker
- Kolping-Chor Stuttgart; founded in 1872 as "vocal department of the Kath. Gesellenverein Stuttgart", today the second largest male choir in Stuttgart
- SWR Vokalensemble Stuttgart; founded in 1946 as "Südfunk-Chor Stuttgart"
- Bachchor Stuttgart
- ‘Gächinger Kantorei’; founded in 1954 by Helmuth Rilling, named after the founding site of Gächingen on the Swabian Alb
- Kammerchor Stuttgart; founded in 1968 by Frieder Bernius
- Württemberg Chamber Choir; founded in 1970 by Dieter Kurz
- Stuttgart cantorei; founded in 1994 by Kay Johannsen
- Unterturkheimer Kantorei; founded in 1892 as "Evangelical Church Choir Untertürkheim"
- chamber choir "Cantus Stuttgart"; founded in 1996 as "Cantus Cannstatt"
- New choir in Stuttgart founded in 1985.
- Singakademie Stuttgart; founded in 2002 as an ensemble ad libitum Stuttgart
- University of Stuttgart
- Philharmonia-Chor Stuttgart; was founded in 1986 from the Philharmonia Vocalensemble and the Philharmonic Choir
- Stuttgart choir
- International Bachakademie Stuttgart
The Neckartalviaduct Untertürkheim is a 1400 meter long combination of several bridges along the 14 national road in the Neckartal near Stuttgart-Untertürkheim. The plans for a road from the Remstal to the Neckar Valley date back to 1932, but construction began only in 1986.
The Nesenbachtal near Stuttgart-Vaihingen is bridged by the Nesenbachviaduct. The original construction was destroyed in 1945 and only rebuilt in 1946. In 1982/1983, as part of the extension of the S-Bahn to Vaihingen, the viaduct was replaced by a new, four-track bridge that looks like the old viaduct.
The Stuttgart-Münster railway viaduct runs across the Neckar Valley and links Untertürkheim to Kornwestheim. The bypass was started in 1896 and the 855 meter long bridge was replaced in 1985 by a concrete-steel construction.
The Stuttgart-Münster power station is primarily used as a waste incinerator. Since 1908, the Neckar power plant can also be operated as a heating and coal power plant and with gas turbines. In 1964 the 182 meter high chimney was added.
The Stuttgart-Gaisburg power plant is a coal-fired power plant on the banks of the Neckar in Stuttgart-Gaisburg. It is used exclusively for district heating. Also in Gaisburg is the Stuttgart-Gaisburg gas plant built in 1874/75, which until 1972 was used for gas production by coal gasification and since then for gas storage. In 1928-1929, the 100 meter high gas boiler was built, which is considered the landmark of the district.
The headquarters of the Ed is in the Zurblin House in Stuttgart-Möhringen. Züblin AG The distinctive office building in prefabricated reinforced concrete construction was built in 1983-1984. The patio is covered with glass and serves as a venue for musical events and performances several times a year.
In the center of Stuttgart lies the Abbey Church, the main church of the Protestant Church in Wuerttemberg. It was first dated in 1170, then expanded, destroyed and rebuilt several times. It is considered a landmark of the city center.
The Protestant Church of Leonhardskirche is the second oldest church foundation in the old town of Stuttgart. The present church was founded in a chapel dedicated to Saint Leonhard in 1337, which at first probably served as a station for pilgrims of the Jakobsweg.
The Evangelical Hospital Church was a late Gothic hall church built between 1471 and 1493 for the Dominican Order.
In 1478, the Protestant Church of St. Germanus was built in Untertuerkheim, but it was mentioned in 1289. According to a chronicler, the church was probably built as a thank for some very fruitful years and led to Untertuerkheim becoming an independent parish.
The Cathedral Church of St. Eberhard (formerly: St. Eberhard Church) is the second cathedral church of the Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart since 1978. In 1808 the foundation stone was laid for this first catholic church building in Stuttgart since the Reformation. The church was given its consecration on October 1, 1811.
St. Barbara was built in 1783/1784 as a Catholic church in Hofen. Since 1954, pilgrimages have been organized to the Madonna of Stuttgart, which the last Catholic priest of the Stuttgart Abbey Church brought to Hofen in 1535.
In Mühlhausen there is the Protestant church built in 1380. Artistic significance are murals from the 15th century. The 19th century features scenes from the Bible and the Legend.
The oldest church in Stuttgart is the Martinskirche in Plieningen. The original church, made of wood, was built around 600 AD. The origin of the Romanesque stone building lies in the St. Martinus Church, which was built in the 12th century. It was built in the monastic courtyard.
The largest church in Stuttgart is the Gospel Forum of the free church of the same name; 2200 visitors are accommodated here.
The Alte Schloss is located in the center of Stuttgart on the Schloßplatz square, on a watercastle dating from the 10th century. 19th century. The first castle was built around 950 for the protection of the staging garden. The Neue Schloss is located in the immediate vicinity of the hotel. The foundation stone for the baroque residence of Duke Carl Eugen was laid on the 3rd of June. September 1746, it was only completed in 1807. After the end of the monarchy, the New Castle became the property of the state of Württemberg in 1918.
Hohenheim is home to the castle of the same name in the Hohenheim district. It was built between 1772 and 1793 by Duke Carl Eugen for his later wife Franziska of Leutrum. Today the castle is mainly used by the University of Hohenheim and is surrounded by the Hohenheimer Gardens.
Also under duke Carl Eugen, from 1764 to 1769 the castle Solitude (French: loneliness) built as a hunting and representation castle. Located on a long ridge between the towns of Leonberg, Gerlingen and the Stuttgart districts of Weilimdorf and Botnang, it offers an unobstructed view to the north into the Unterland of Württemberg in the direction of Ludwigsburg. The Akademie Schloss Solitude is a foundation of public law that grants scholarships to artists for six or twelve months. The artists live and work during the scholarship in 45 furnished studios located in the two former office and cavalier buildings of the castle.
The Museum of Natural History is located in the castle of Rosenstein. It was under King Wilhelm I from 1822 to 1830. built in classical style. It is located on the edge of the Neckartal in the middle of the contemporary Rosensteinpark. From the castle you have a free view of the Mausoleum, the tomb chapel on the Wuerttemberg, built for King William's second wife, Katharina Pawlowna.
In the east of Stuttgart, the Villa Berg and the park was built on behalf of the Crown Prince Karl of Württemberg from 1845 to 1893. Built in the style of the Italian Neo-Renaissance, the villa was the first building of the 19th-century villa architecture in south-west Germany. century.
Originally conceived as a "bathing house", construction of the first building of the so-called "Wilhelma" was started in 1842 under the orders of the king. Architect Ludwig von Zanth succeeded in combining what was understood in Moorish style with the skills of German craftsmen, the housing needs of a Swabian monarch and the central European climate. When the Wilhelma was inaugurated in 1846 on the occasion of the wedding of Crown Prince Karl with the daughter Olga Nikolaevna, there was a festival hall, two main buildings with several wooden rooms, various pavilions, greenhouses and spacious parks.
The Wilhelmspalais am Charlottenplatz was a residence of the last King of Württemberg, Wilhelm II. It was built between 1834 and 1840 primarily as the residence of his two oldest daughters, Marie and Sophie. The Stuttgart central library was built for a long time and now houses the city museum after a reconstruction.
Stuttgart's steffels are the city's famous stairways: There are more than 400 of a total length of more than 20 kilometers. Most of them date back to the vineyards in the town until the beginning of the 19th century. century. To be able to cultivate the steep terraces at all, stairways and paths had to be built. Later, as the city continued to grow up on the slopes and the vineyards were partly replaced by houses and roads, the graveways were used as a pedestrian path to newly built residential areas. Some of them have been elaborated and supplemented with plants and fountains.
Known staffles include, for example, the guard squadron, the Eugene squadron, the Sängerstaffel, Buchenhofstaffel, or the scapegoat.
The Staffels have brought the nickname of the Stelephant to the inhabitants of the city.
Because of the hilly topography, Stuttgart is also a city of tunnels. Among them are road, rail, S-Bahn and city rail tunnels.
The Wagenburgtunnel of 1941 was originally used as an air shelter. The 824-meter-long South tube was extended until 1958 and was the longest road tunnel in Germany when it was opened. The 2300 meter Heslacher tunnel was built between 1980 and 1991. Follow the B14 of the four-oak tunnel (290 meters) and the Gäubahn tunnel (450 meters) to the shadow ring.
When it was built, the 124 meter long and 10.5 meter wide swab tunnel was the widest tunnel in Europe. It was built between 1894 and 1896 and was the second inner-city tunnel in Europe after the Salzburg Sigmundstor. Until 1972, tram number 8 also passed through this tunnel.
Other tunnels are:
- the Johannesburg tunnel (approximately 200 meters) at the Bundesautobahn 831 in Stuttgart-Vaihingen,
- stallion (780 meters) and Österfeldtunnel (370 meters) on the north-south road,
- when merging B 10 and B 14: the Berger Tunnel, the Leuze Tunnel and the Schwanenplatz Tunnel (500 meters) in Stuttgart-Berg near the mineral baths,
- the Prague saddle tunnel (720 meters) of the B 10 at the Löwentor; and
- the Feuerbach tunnel (about 1200 meters), the Feuerbach is relieved from the B 295.
The oldest railway tunnel in Stuttgart is the four - track Prague tunnel to Feuerbach. The first of the two tubes was completed in 1846. The war mining tunnel and the Hasenberg tunnel are located on the route to Böblingen and are part of the Gäubahn. The Rosstein tunnel along the route to Bad Cannstatt had already begun in 1844 and was completed in 1846. However, it is out of operation for a long time, but it is still in existence, as, for example, from 1912, two new pipes were built east of it, which are now in operation as a suburban tunnel and a railway tunnel. The city center is crossed by the 8788 meter long S-Bahn tunnel of the connecting railway between the main station and Österfeld. Part of this tunnel is also called the Hasenberg tunnel.
A series of tunnels are being built within the framework of Stuttgart 21, including the 9.5 km Filder Tunnel.
Stuttgart's tram system was extended to the city railway in the mid-1960s, with many urban lines being moved underground. The tunnels were equipped with an extended gage required for the city railway vehicles, so that it was possible to move from the meter to the normal gage. Until 1983 the entire inner city area was tunneled, followed by the Weinsteigtunnel (1987), Degerloch (1990), Feuerbach Siemensstraße (1984), Feuerbach Wiener Straße (1990), Weilimdorf (1992), Killesberg (1993), Botanger Sattel (1994), Gerlingen (1997), Waldau (1998), Sillenbuch (1999), Ruit (2000), Steinhaldenfeld (2005), Fasanenhof with B18000 27 (2010) and Zuffenhausen (2011). In the course of the construction of Stuttgart 21, the tunnel was moved to the main railway station - Stadtbibliothek and both directions were divided into different tubes, as well as an underground branch from the tunnel Heilbronner Strasse to the Budapest Square (2017). The branch structure with the stop "Staatsgalerie" is under construction. 2019).
Towers and towers
A landmark of the city is the Stuttgart TV tower, built south of the city’s main square in the Degerloch district. It is slightly below the highest point of the Bopser (also called High Bopser); 485.2 meters a.s.l. NN). The first TV tower in the world in reinforced concrete construction was built between 1954 and 1955 and is 216.61 m high. Originally, a regular steel-box mast of about 200 meters was planned as a carrier for radio and television antennas. The idea of making the basket of the tower also suitable for tourists has already been realized five years after its construction: The construction costs of 4.2 million DM were amortized by the entrance fees. The TV tower became the model for various constructions worldwide.
On the Frauenkopf stands (462.3 m a.s.l. NN) from the Stuttgart telecommunications tower of Deutsche Telekom AG. It is also made of reinforced concrete and is 192 m high. Built between 1970 and 1972, it cost approximately 9.5 million DM. In addition to these two, the Stuttgart Radio Tower built on the Raichberg in 1966 and the Stuttgart-Burgholzhof Radio Tower (1989) near Pragsattel are among the city’s most famous radio towers.
The 61 meter high Tagblatt tower in Stuttgart-Mitte was built in the years 1924-1928 and was thus the first high concrete concrete building in Germany. It is also considered the symbol of the city. The name derives from the original use made by the newspaper Stuttgarter Neues Tagesblatt.
The 42-meter high Killesberg Tower, built as a observation tower, is located in the Killesberg mountain park. In 1993 the International Garden Exhibition was exhibited in the park. In order to provide a broad overview of the site, an artificial elevation was required. The shape was created by the fact that the builders had to create a filigree tower that fits into the landscape on the one hand, and the actual task of providing an overview on the other. And out came the rope net construction.
Other observation towers are the Bismarckturm in Stuttgart-Nord and the observation tower Burgholzhof in Bad Cannstatt. The former is located on the Gähkopf (409 m) and offers a good view of Stuttgart’s city center as well as a wide view of all directions. It was built between 1902 and 1904. Built in 1891, the observation tower Burgholzhof offers good views of Stuttgart-Ost, Bad Cannstatt and the Neckartal to Esslingen at the Neckar.
The war mountain tower in the Stuttgart district of Relenberg is a vantage tower built in 1895 on the 353 meters above sea level. NN high mountain of war. It is only open to the public for special occasions.
In Stuttgart-Degerloch there is a 400 cubic meter water tower, which was built between 1911 and 1912.
The tower of the main railway station rises 56 meters high in the center of the city. The construction of the railway station lasted almost eight years from the laying of the foundation stone in 1914 to the opening in 1922, delayed by the First World War. A five meter diameter Mercedes star rotates on the viewing terrace.
See also: List of the highest buildings in Stuttgart | List of towers in Stuttgart | Tower in Stuttgart | List of towers of Stuttgart city fortifications
Weissenhof settlement and Kochenhof settlement
The Weissenhof settlement was initiated in 1927 as part of an exhibition by the German Workers' Association and built under the direction of Mies van der Rohe at Stuttgart's Killesberg. The settlement is considered to be one of the most important architectural settlements of modern times.
In 1933, in the context of the Nazi takeover of power, another settlement, the Kochenhof settlement, which was built as a model settlement under the direction of the architect Paul Schmitthenner and representatives of the Stuttgart School, was built on wooden structures and as a deliberately traditional counter-model to the nearby Weissenhof settlement.
Stuttgart's main railway station is the largest railway station in Stuttgart and the center of Stuttgart's S-Bahn (city rail) traffic, as well as the Charlottenplatz station, the main hub of Stuttgart's city railway. The architects Paul Bonatz and Friedrich Eugen Scholer began the work in 1914. The completion was delayed by World War I. It was officially opened in 1922 but finalized in 1927. In 1987, Stuttgart's main railway station was registered as a cultural monument of particular importance in the historical monument. In 2010 and 2012 the northern and southern wing of the railway station was rebuilt due to the Stuttgart 21 railway project.
The Mercedes-Benz Arena, formerly the "Gottlieb Daimler Stadium" and the "Neckarstadion", was also built by Paul Bonatz between 1929 and 1933 and put into operation in 1933 under the name of "Adolf Hitler Battleway". In 1935 it was expanded from 35,000 seats to 70,000 seats. After the war, the US occupation first renamed the stadium "Century Stadium" and later "Battlefield" and used it for baseball games. In 1949 it was named "Neckarstadion". Between 1949 and 1951, the stadium was extended to 97,500 places. In 1974, during the World Cup, the grandstands were rebuilt. The stadium now attracted 72,000 spectators. In 1986, the Arena was the first German stadium to receive a color plate for the European Athletics Championships. As part of the reconstruction of the 1993 World Athletics Championships, it was renamed "Gottlieb Daimler Stadium" and since 2008 it has been called "Mercedes-Benz Arena". Between 1999 and 2005, further construction work was carried out, and in 2009-2011, the conversion to a football stadium was carried out without a course surrounding the playing field.
Next to the Mercedes-Benz Arena is the largest multi-purpose hall in Stuttgart, the Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle. It was built in 1983 and named after the murdered employer president, Hanns Martin Schleyer. After the modernization in 2005-2006, the hall has 15,500 seating and standing places. The Schleyer-Halle is connected to the Porsche-Arena, which opened in 2006. It is mainly used for sporting events. The Carl Benz Center is located in the immediate vicinity. Opened in 2006, the event center offers an area of about 20,000 square meters. From 1905 to 1907, the Art Nouveau Feischenle (Art Nouveau) and the only Krematorium in Stuttgart were built in the Prague cemetery.
The market hall is an Art Nouveau building in the city center. It was built between 1911 and 1914 on the site where a vegetable market had been in existence since 1864. At first, it served as a food exchange with more than 400 stands. After a serious destruction in the Second World War, the market hall was rebuilt and has been listed as a historical monument since 1974. Today it is a consumer market. The former Hotel Silber on Karlsplatz was once the headquarters of the Gestapo.
The Stuttgart City Hall, the seat of the Stuttgart City Council, is also located in the city center. Built in 1901-1905 in the style of the Flemish late Gothic period, the magnificent predecessor building was completely burned after bombing in 1944. Despite the destruction, parts of the two wings were preserved during reconstruction. In its present form, the town hall has existed since 1956. The 60.5 meter high clock tower overlooks Stuttgart's market square. In 2004, the City Hall was renovated for 26 million euros and brought up-to-date technology under the direction of Professor Walter Belz.
The Carl-Zeiss-Planetarium is located in the Mittlerer Schlossgarten. The project director Zeiss VI A was donated by the Carl-Zeiss Foundation to the City of Stuttgart in 1969. Construction of the Planetarium was only possible in 1975, however, with the support of numerous donations, and was completed in 1977.
The Funkhaus in Stuttgart was built by architect Rolf Gutbrod from 1972 to 1976 and was considered the most modern radio station in Europe when it was commissioned. It is located on the territory of the former Stuttgart city hall in the district of Berg. Since 1998, it has been the head office of the director of the South West Radio and is the head office of the two-state broadcaster and the regional radio station for Baden-Württemberg. In 2000 the "Funkhaus" in Stuttgart was added to the list of cultural monuments by the Landesdenkmalamt Baden-Württemberg. The tripartite building complex in blue-silver facade panels is still considered a unique building in the broadcasting landscape. From 1950 to 2004, the aforementioned Villa Berg in immediate vicinity served as a broadcasting studio for South West Radio.
Villa Reitzenstein was built between 1910 and 1913 and is located in the Stuttgart-Ost district.
The Weissenburgpark houses the tea house and the marble hall. Completed in 1913, the former villa's tea house is an Art Nouveau pavilion. The colorful ceiling paintings with music scenes are worth a visit. Today the tea house with a large garden terrace is a popular place to visit in summer. The marble room, also completed in 1913 by Heinrich Henes, is located on the slope below the tea house. The marble hall was originally used as a garden hall and has been refurbished in the early 1990s and is now available for events since 1994.
The Old Stone House on the 11 trench road in Stuttgart was a defensive residential building and beside the Stuthaus one of the oldest profane buildings in the city. It probably dates from the siege of Stuttgart by Rudolf von Habsburg in 1286, first documented in 1393.
In the Möhringen there are two prominent residential towers. The Fasan 2 is characterized by the fact that two complex buildings are connected on several levels by accessible bridges. Fasan 2 was built between 1964 and 1965 and is 64 meters high. The Salute Hochhaus, built between 1961 and 1962 at an altitude of 70 meters and 20 stories, is located in the immediate vicinity and received the Paul Bonatz Prize in 1967. The residential complex Hannibal in Asemwald was built between 1968 and 1972 and consists of three blocks of flats with a height of up to 70 meters and 22 floors. Originally, a single complex was planned, following the model of the "housing machine", but due to its gigantic size it was not approved.
Another important cultural monument is the residential house Arminstraße 4. It has been named a monument of February 2005 by the Baden-Württemberg Monument Foundation.
The SI-Centrum is located in Stuttgart-Möhringen. Consisting of two musical theaters, the Spielbank Stuttgart, 19 restaurants and bars, a cinema palace with six cinemas, 17 conference rooms for up to 1000 people, the Millennium Hotel, the SI Suites and the VitaParc SchwabenQuelle (Wellness), the Erlebniscenter is one of the largest leisure facilities in Stuttgart. Since 1960 the Hotel Stuttgart International has been in the vicinity of which over the years new buildings have been added.
Other major buildings include the Liederhalle, the Villa Gemmingen-Hornberg and the administrative building of the Württembergische Sparkasse.
Created by Max Bill and Heinz Mack in 1989, the picture column group is a 32-meter high, three-piece sculpture made of enamel on steel. Until the end of April 2006 she stood in front of the former DaimlerChrysler Group headquarters in Möhringen, since then in front of the Mercedes-Benz Museum in NeckarPark.
The memorial "Signs of Remembrance" at the Nordbahnhof in Stuttgart recalls that more than 2000 Jews from Stuttgart and Wuerttemberg were deported and murdered during the period of National Socialism between 1941 and 1945. With the help of the association "sign of memory e. The memorial was built on the 14th of May. 1 June 2006. The names of the deported Jews can be read on the 70-meter-long wall along the tracks.
Parking and water
Right in the center starts at the old castle of the 600-year-old castle garden. In 1350, the first mention was made of a large garden near the Old Castle. The approximately 61 hectare castle garden follows the course of the channeled Nesenbach to the Neckar. It is divided into three main areas: the "Upper Castle Garden" (about 14 hectares), the "Mittlerer Schlossgarten" (about 19 hectares) and the "Unteren Schlossgarten" (about 28 hectares). The Obere Schlossgarten stretches from the Old Castle to the height of the main railway station and includes the State Theater and the Landtag building. Via the Ferdinand-Leitner-Steg, it passes into the Mittlerer Schlossgarten, which is bordered in the north by the road "Am Schlossgarten". Here you can find the Planetarium and the National Pavilion. The "Grüne Brücke" (Green Bridge) leads to the Unteren Schlossgarten, which extends to the mineral baths in Stuttgart-Berg near the Cannstatter Neckar shore. Here the castle garden seamlessly passes into the approximately 65-hectare Rosensteinpark, which is bounded in the south-west by railway tracks, north by the zoological-botanical garden of Wilhelma and the "Pragstraße" and in the north-west by the Löwentor. Due to the old trees and the extensive meadows, the Rosensteinpark is considered to be the largest park in the south-west of Germany. King Wilhelm I the garden was built between 1824 and 1840, which included the construction of the classicist castle - today the Rosstein Museum. Via the "Lodzer Steg", the "Brno Steg" and the "Bombaysteg" you can reach the subsequent Killesberg elevation park, which covers approximately 50 hectares, in the Stuttgart-Nord district. The complex dates back to the Reichsgarten exhibition in 1939, for which the former quarry site was transformed into a park and exhibition grounds. From 1939 to 1945, the site was the site of the collection of the Jews of the Württemberg region for transport to the concentration camps. Since the 1950s, the park has been the venue for several horticultural exhibitions such as the German Garden Show in 1950, the Bundesgartenschau in 1961 and the International Garden Construction Exhibition in 1993.
All three facilities - the Schlossgarten, the Rosensteinpark and the Killesbergpark - together form the famous "Grüne U" in Stuttgart.
North of the Rosenstein Park lies the country's own zoological-botanical garden, Wilhelma. It has existed in its present form since 1953. In the historic castle complex of 1846 about 8000 animals in 1050 species and about 5000 plant species are shown on about 28 hectares. This makes Wilhelma the second richest zoo in Germany after Berlin Zoo. Because of the mineral springs found in 1829, the then King Wilhelm I wanted to. build a "badhaus" in the castle park as an annex. In 1837 the construction of the complex was started and in 1842 the construction of the first building began. In the course of the planning, the bathing house had become a comfortable residential building with several rooms, including a dome room with two adjoining greenhouses with one corner pavilion each. When the Wilhelma was inaugurated in 1846, there was a festival hall, two main buildings with several wooden rooms, various pavilions, greenhouses and spacious parks.
Hohenheim Castle includes the Hohenheimer Gardens. In 1776, the Duke of Württemberg Carl Eugen had an English complex built up to the 20th century. In the 19th century more than 35 hectares of parking space were created. Today, large parts of the ensemble are used by the University of Hohenheim for research purposes. The most important parts are the Landesarboretum with the "Exotic Garden" and the "Botanical Garden". The gardens are complemented by a vineyard and a sheep pasture covering an additional 2.2 hectares.
The Uhlandsheim is a hill on the eastern edge of the city center. It is located in the triangle between the city center, Bad Cannstatt and the Frauenkopf. Until the late Middle Ages, it served as a quarry. Between 1861 and 1896, the Stuttgart Embellishment Association bought parts of the site and designed a large park with panoramic terraces and a monument by the poet Ludwig Uhland. The "Observatory Uhland Heights", founded in 1919 by the association "Schwäbische Observatory e. V.’
The Weissenburgpark is a 5-hectare green area in Stuttgart-Süd on the hill called Bopser. The so-called tea house and the marble hall are located on the hillside, and are now used as a place for excursions and events. Buildings and park were built between 1843/44 and 1912/13 (changed to the Bundesgartenschau 1961).
The Birkenkopf is a 511 meter high mountain, the highest point in the inner city area. The top 40 meters were built from ruins of World War II.
Stuttgart's Eichenhain has been a protected natural area since 1958 in the district of Sillenbuch. Some 200 oaks are in a park-like landscape. The oldest of them are 300 to 400 years old and have tribes of four to six meters in circumference.
The Chinese garden of Qingyin is located on Birkenwald Street and offers a view over the city center towards the south. It was created in 1993 for the International Horticultural Exhibition.
The HoppenRunning Cemetery in Stuttgart-Mitte is the oldest cemetery in Stuttgart still to be preserved. He was founded in 1626 as a hospital cemetery after a donation of land by Johann Kercher, who was the first to be buried there. The last earthquake was in 1880, the last one in 1951.
The largest cemetery in the town of Degerloch is located at about 31 ha: The Waldcemetery in Stuttgart was built in 1913. The cemetery is 100 meters above sea level and is connected to Südheimer Platz by a funicular railway. Many celebrities are buried here.
The main cemetery opened in 1918 is located in the Muckensturm district of Bad Cannstatter. With 29.6 hectares, it is the second largest cemetery in Stuttgart. Since 1944, he has had an Armenian graveyard and since 1985 a Muslim graveyard. A large Jewish graveyard was built in 1937/38, as the places in the Prague cemetery became scarce.
The third largest cemetery is the Prague cemetery of 1873 with an Art Nouveau crematorium. The complex is now about 20 hectares and houses the only crematorium in Stuttgart, built between 1905 and 1907. The cemetery is regarded as a cultural monument. In 1874, the cemetery was expanded to include a section for members of the Israeli faith. On the site of Prague's cemetery there is also the Russian Orthodox St. Alexander Nevsky Church.
The Uff-Kirchhof in Bad Cannstatt is one of the oldest cemeteries in Stuttgart. He's in eighth or ninth. It was built at the intersection of a Roman road and since the Middle Ages served as a church courtyard for the hamlet Uffkirchen and its parish. After the village of Uffkirchen had left, Cannstatt used church and cemetery. The Late Gothic Church of the Virgin Mary, now called "Uffkirche", is listed as a historical monument and is used as a cemetery chapel.
The Max-Eyth Lake is an artificial lake directly at the Neckar, at the foot of vineyards between Stuttgart-Mühlhausen and Stuttgart-Hofen. In 1920, a mine was formed by intense gravel mining, which in 1935 became the largest lake in Stuttgart as the Neckar was channeled. In 1961 the site and the lake were protected by landscape. Lake Max-Eyth is considered a recreational area as well as a natural area.
The park lakes in the Red and Black Wildpark in Stuttgart-West are a popular excursion destination mainly in summer for walkers and athletes. Bärensee, Neuer See and Pfaffensee form this three-kilometer long reservoir trio. The lakes were built artificially between 1566 and 1826 to improve the water supply in Stuttgart.
Lake Egelsee lies at the Wartberg in the north of Stuttgart. This was created artificially for the International Horticultural Exhibition (IGA) in 1993.
Two fire lakes are located in the central part of the city of the same name in Stuttgart-West and in Vaihingen. The first is the St. John's Church and the S-Bahn station at Feuersee.
Other lakes in the city area are the "Rohrer See" in Rohr, the "Probstsee" in Möhringen and the "Riedsee" between Möhringen and Sonnenberg. The lakes are home to rare waterbirds.
The Neckar, the Körsch, the Feuerbach and the Nesenbach flow partly through Stuttgart's city area between Vaihingen and Stuttgart-Ost.
Mineral baths (urban)
- mineral bath/thermal spa
- Mineralbad Leuze (Stuttgart-Ost)
- Mineralbad Berg (Stuttgart-Ost)
- CMT - Exhibition for Caravan, Motor and Tourism (January)
- Stuttgart Film Winter organized by Wand 5 (January)
- DTB Cup (March)
- Long night of museums (March)
- Retro Classics, Fair for Classic Car (March)
- Stuttgart Spring Festival on the Cannstatter Wasen (April/May)
- International Film Festival (April/May)
- Stuttgart run (Stuttgarter Zeitung run), half marathon and several other runs (June)
- Allmand Open Air, the largest open-air student festival in Stuttgart in the residential area of the University of Stuttgart, Vaihingen (June)
- Mercedes Cup (formerly International Weissenhof Tournament), International Tennis Tournament (June)
- Hamburg fish market on Karlsplatz (July)
- Stuttgart light festival on Killesberg (July)
- Summer Festival of Cultures in the Market Square (July)
- Christopher Street Day (July)
- Free and outdoor, 3-day music-political cultural spectacle (early August)
- Stuttgart Summer Festival in the Schlossgarten and on Schlossplatz (August)
- Stuttgart wine village in the city center (August/September)
- European Music Festival Stuttgart at the International Bachakademie Stuttgart in the Liederhalle (September)
- Cannstatter Volksfest on the Cannstatter Wasen - every four years connected to the Agricultural Main Festival (LWH) (end of September/October)
- Porsche Tennis Grand Prix in Porsche Arena (September/October)
- Stuttgart night, former Stuttgart Kulturnacht (October)
- Stuttgart German Masters, big indoor riding tournament in the Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle (October/November)
- Stuttgart exhibition heir (November)
- flea market, spring and autumn flea market all around the city
- Stuttgart Book Week (November/December)
- Baden-Württemberg Film Festival (November/December)
- Stuttgart's Christmas market (formerly called "Christmas Fair") in the city center (Advent Period)
- World Christmas scircus on the Cannstatter Wasen (December/January)
- Dragon Days, Festival of Fantasy
- Königstraße, main axis of pedestrian zone
- Calwer Straße, pedestrian zone in Stuttgart-Mitte
- Calwer Passage, covered pedestrian zone in Stuttgart Mitte
- main road, central transport
- Breuninger am Marktplatz, Germany's fourth largest department store
- Historical tram lines 21 and 23
- Stuttgart observatory at Uhlandhöhe
- Restaurant with view in the Hannibal tower
Stuttgart has several stadiums and arenas for top sports events. The most important sports center of the city is located on the Cannstatter Wasen in the Neckarpark. There you will find the Mercedes-Benz Arena football stadium and the four multifunctional halls Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle, Porsche-Arena, Scharrena and Carl Benz Center. Another large sports area lies on the Waldau in Degerloch. There you will find a variety of sports facilities, the Gazi stadium on the Waldau and the ice sports center Waldau.
Stuttgart was one of the venues for the 1974 and 2006 football World Cup and the venue for the 1986 and 1993 European Athletics Championships.
In addition, numerous other international sporting events were held in Stuttgart, e.g. B:
- 1977: World Weighing Championship
- 1983: World Championship in formation
- 1985: European men's basketball championship final
- 1986: European athletics championships
- 1987: Tour de France stage
- 1989: World Turn Championships
- 1989: Davis Cup final
- 1989: Final round of the European Women's Volleyball Championship
- 1991: World Road Wheel Championships
- 1991: European Ringer Championships
- 1992: European Championship of Rhythmic Sports Gym
- 1992: European Table Tennis Championships
- 1993: world athletics championships
- 2006-2008: world athletics final
- 2007: World Turn Championships
- 2007: World Road Wheel Championships
- 2007: Handball World Cup Games
- 2009: European Table Tennis Championships
- 2019: World Turn Championships
Every year the Mercedes Cup and Porsche Grand Prix tennis tournaments, the German Masters Riding Tournament, the DTB World Cup Turn event, the German Open Championships in Tanzsport and the Stuttgart run are held. Until 2008, a six-day race was held in the Schleyer-Halle every year.
In addition, Stuttgart has a long tradition of motor sport. The Solitude race for motorbikes and automobiles near the Solitude Castle was held for the first time in 1903 and ranked as the German Grand Prix for motorbikes from 1952 to 1964 several times as the world motorcycle championship. The automobile races were also extremely top-notch, especially in the early 1960s, and had the status of Formula 1 races between 1961 and 1964, but were not part of the world championship. U. a. were starters like Wolfgang Graf Berghe of Trips, Hans Herrmann, Innes Ireland, Jim Clark, Dan Gurney, John Surtees and Jack Brabham. The end of the Solitude race came in the mid-1960s. The Solitude circuit was considered too dangerous for its sharp curves, proximity to the spectators and lack of exit zones and was not used after 1965. Today, the Solitude Revival takes place regularly as an classic car race.
Stuttgart is home to two well-known football clubs. With over 68,000 members, VfB Stuttgart is one of the largest sports clubs in Germany. The club has been a German champion five times and a German champion three times. He plays his home games at the Mercedes-Benz Arena in the Neckarpark. Stuttgart kickers, who were also members of the Bundesliga in the 1980s and 1990s in two seasons, have been playing in the Oberliga Baden-Württemberg since 2018/19; their home games take place in the Gazi stadium on the Waldau in Degerloch. The sports friends Stuttgart and the FV Zuffenhausen are also known football clubs.
Since the 2015/16 season, TV Bittenfeld has been playing under the name TVB in Stuttgart in 1898 in the German Handball League. The Scharrena is the home theater, and part of the home games is also held in the Porsche Arena for capacity reasons. VfL Pfullingen/Stuttgart played in the Bundesliga from 2001 to 2006, where he played his home games in the Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle. In the season 1990/91 the SG Stuttgart-Hinghhausen also played in the Bundesliga.
Since 2008 the women's volleyball team Allianz MTV Stuttgart (until 2010 Allianz Volley Stuttgart, until 2012 Smart Allianz Stuttgart) has been playing in the Bundesliga. She became German Champion in 2019 after having been vice-champion four times in a row from 2015 to 2018, and also won the DVV Cup three times. Three times German Champion in women's volleyball became CJD Feuerbach. The club withdrew its first team from the Bundesliga in 1996 for financial reasons.
Stuttgart is represented in the ice hockey field by the Stuttgart Rebels in the regional league and in the emerging market. The home games will be held at the ice sports center Waldau in Degerloch. The Stuttgart Scorpions are active in the German Football League. They play in the Gazi stadium on the Waldau. In 2007, they became German runner-up. In the water ball the SV Cannstatt 2006 became the German Champion. In the Ladies Tennis the TC Weißenhof is four times the German Champion and the TEC Waldau German Champion 2006. The hockey club HTC Stuttgart Kickers won the German championship in 2005 and the European Cup of the regional champions in 2006.
The second largest traditional sports club is the MTV Stuttgart with 9100 members. The women’s team became German champions in the art tournament in 2010 and from 2012 to 2018, the men did so in 2014. In the 2005/06 season, the MTV was the last club in Stuttgart to have a basketball team in a professional league before withdrawing from the second Bundesliga. In 1950, the last great success of a basketball team from Stuttgart was the German championship of the BC Stuttgart-Degerloch.
The billiard club BC Stuttgart 1891 has been playing in the 1st place since 2013. Snooker Bundesliga and became German Champion in 2014 and 2017. In addition, the club played for several years in the 2nd. The Bundesliga and the 2nd Bundesliga. pool billiard Bundesliga. The TSV Weilimdorf was the German Champion in Futsal in 2019.
The two biggest sports clubs in Stuttgart after the VfB Stuttgart are the two Alpine club sections Schwaben with almost 32,900 members and Stuttgart with almost 28,100 members. The third DAV section, the section Wroclaw with almost 700 members, was originally founded in Wroclaw in 1877.
Economy and infrastructure
In the Future Atlas 2019, the district-free city of Stuttgart occupies fifth place among 401 districts and circular-free cities in Germany and is thus one of the places with "top chances for the future".
In 2016, Stuttgart achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of €51.571 billion, ranking sixth in Germany's cities according to economic performance. The share of Baden-Württemberg's economic output was 11.3 %. GDP per capita was €82,397 in the same year (Baden-Württemberg: 43.632 €, Germany 38.180 €) and is the 8th highest of all urban centers in Germany. In 2016, the city’s economic performance recorded nominal growth of 1.5%. In 2016, the city had about 519,300 people in employment. The unemployment rate was 3.9% in December 2018, above the average of Baden-Württemberg at 3.0%, but below the German average. Stuttgart is the center of the Stuttgart metropolitan area, which in 2014 generated a gross domestic product of approximately €226 billion.
Stuttgart is one of the most profitable and economically important cities in Germany and Europe. The region of Stuttgart is one of the centers of German medium-sized enterprises, with about 1500 small and medium-sized enterprises based in Germany. These are primarily suppliers to the large, globally operating automotive and mechanical engineering companies. Many high-tech companies, including Daimler, Porsche and Bosch, have located in the city and its surroundings, as well as Siemens, Kodak and Lenovo. Due to this economic situation not only of the city but also of the entire region, this colloquial or jokingly often referred to as a Stuttgart bacon belt. Stuttgart is one of the cities categorized as "beta" according to GaWC study in 2016.
Personalities such as Fritz Leonhardt, Frei Otto or Jörg Schlaich are considered examples of important engineers in the city. Engineering offices such as SBP, Leonhardt Andrä and Partner as well as Knippers Helbig planned buildings such as the Expo axis in Shanghai or the airport in Shenzhen. Known architectural offices include Behnisch & Partner (Olympic site Munich, Bundestagsbau) and Behnisch Architects (NordLB, Ozeaneum Stralsund).
The Stuttgart financial center is the second most important stock exchange in Germany with the Stuttgart Stock Exchange after Frankfurt. Landesbank Baden-Württemberg (LBBW) is one of the largest German credit institutions and is Germany's largest Landesbank. Its subsidiary BW-Bank is also Sparkasse der Stadt Stuttgart. The privately-owned Suedwestbank AG, the Swabian Bank and the Ellwanger & Geiger Bankhaus are organized.
Several insurance companies are based in Stuttgart with the Württemberg Insurance Company, the Württemberg Life Insurance Corporation (both subsidiaries of the Wuerttemberg Society and Württemberg Society), SV Sparkassen Insurance, WGV and Allianz Life Insurance.
With Wolff & Müller, Züblin and Gottlob Rommel, three major national construction companies are also located in Stuttgart. Mateco GmbH, based in Stuttgart, is a large landlord of working platforms.
The city of Stuttgart has also been the seat of a casino since 1996. It is the third match bank in the state of Baden-Württemberg after Baden-Baden and Konstanz. All three have been operated since 2003 under the direction of the Baden-Württembergische Spielbanken GmbH & Co. KG, headquartered in Baden-Baden.
There are 175 hotels in Stuttgart with a total of 18,900 beds. In 2014, 3.47 million overnight stays were counted by 1.82 million guests, up 8.2% from the previous year. The utilization rate was 71 percent.
With about 400 hectares of vineyards, Stuttgart is one of the largest wine-growing communities in Germany. The Stuttgarter Mönchhalde, Cannstatter Zuckerle, and the locations of Untertuerkheim, Rotenberg and Uhlbach in the city center are well known (see the main article Weinbau in Stuttgart).
electricity and gas
In addition to its own power generation in the power stations of Münster, Gaisburg and the fluvial power plants at Neckar, Stuttgart is mainly supplied via three overhead power lines, which lead from the supranational EnBW substations in Pulverdingen, Wendlingen and Hoheneck to substations in the Stuttgart city area (Weilimdorf, Seewiesen, Möhringen). They were all executed with an operating voltage of 220 kV, but since the end of the 2000s they have only been operated with 110 kV.
In Stuttgart there are a total of 25 substations of the 110 kV plane of EnBW and today there are networks BW. A new 380 kV substation was built in Mühlhausen. In addition, there are approximately 1400 km of 10 kV medium-voltage power cables from Stuttgart networks, which are almost completely underground and connect 7700 transformer stations.
There is a 110 kV line from the Möhringen substation to the Sindelfingen substation. In Obertürkheim there is another 110 kV substation, fed by a branch of the former 9461 line, an overhead line from Hoheneck to Altbach (formerly to Niederstotzingen). All the other 110 kV lines of the public power grid in Stuttgart are constructed as ground cables.
In 2011, the municipal council of Stuttgart decided to set up its own 100 percent municipal municipal works. Stadtwerke Stuttgart, which has been operating since July 2012, is the second foundation of a metropolitan city work in Germany since the market liberalization of 1998. Since February 2013, it has been offering green electricity and natural gas to all retail and commercial customers in Stuttgart. The municipal utilities are increasingly operating their own wind and solar power plants and are a contractor for energy systems for the production of heat and electricity. In October 2014, the Stuttgart municipal council also decided by a majority to award the operation of the 5000 km long electricity and 1700 km long gas networks in the state capital to a cooperation between Stadtwerke Stuttgart and the EnBW subsidiary NetBW, retroactively from 1 January 2014. The cooperation model had received the highest score in the award of the concession for the energy supply networks over the next 20 years. After a transitional period, the joint venture will be responsible for the electricity and gas networks from 2016 onwards and from 2019 onwards.
In the past, there were also many medium-voltage overhead lines in the urban area, but these were replaced by less interference-prone underground cables. The last section on the surface of the river Gäubahn in Dachswald ran until 2017.
The electrical railway lines of the Deutsche Bahn in the city area are supplied via the Zazenhausen central entry point in the north of the city. For the S-Bahn to Bernhausen and Herrenberg, there is a substation in Rohr, which is supplied via a traction current line that is diverted from the railway line Zazenhausen-Eutingen near Ehningen and which runs for the most part parallel to the railway line Herrenberg-Stuttgart. In addition, other substations exist in the surrounding area, such as Leonberg or Waiblingen, for the addition of other S-Bahn lines.
The Bärensee, the Neue See and Lake Pfaffensee in the west of the city used to provide drinking water in Stuttgart. Since 1917, Stuttgart has been supplied with drinking water from the Danube Valley near Lanexact from the state water supply. The line reaches the eastern part of the city via Göppingen in Rotenberg. Since 1958, drinking water has also come from Lake Constance via the Bodensee water supply. The feed-in is located in Rohr in the southwest of the city. Water towers are located in Degerloch and on the chapel (Bismarckturm).
Stuttgart Airport, the largest airport in the state of Baden-Württemberg, is located at the southern city border. The area is mainly located on the Filderstadt street.
Since the opening of the new Terminal 3 in March 2004, Stuttgart Airport has a capacity of 12 million passengers. In 2003, some 7.6 million passengers flew, compared to 8.8 million in 2004; In 2005, 9.5 million passengers flew to and from Stuttgart. There are currently more than 11 million
At the northern border of Stuttgart there is the special landing place Pattonville Airport, which is used exclusively by sports and sailing aircraft.
Sailing is possible at the Green Heiner in Weilimdorf.
The city is also an important railway hub. From Stuttgart Central Station, connections to Vaihingen/Enz-Pforzheim-Karlsruhe-Strasbourg-Paris (since summer 2007 with TGV connections, see LGV Est européenne) lead to Heilbronn-Heidelberg-Mannheim-Frankfurt am Main-Mainz-Köln-Düsseldorf-Dortmund/-Hannover-Hamburg/-Berlin, after Plochingen-Göppingen-Ulm-München-Salzburg-Linz-St. Pölten-Wien (Bratislava or Győr-Budapest), Memmingen-Kempten (Allgäu)-Oberstdorf (via Ulm), Ravensburg-Friedrichshafen-Lindau (via Ulm), Freudenstadt/Rottda (train sharing in Eutingen im Gäu), Horb-Rottda-Singen at Hohentwiel-Schaffel hausen-Zurich, to Waiblingen-Schwäbisch Hall-Hessental-Ansbach-Nürnberg, to Rottenburg-Horb and Hechingen-Balingen-Sigmaringen-Aulendorf (via Plochingen, Reutlingen and Tübingen, there Zug), to Ludwigsburg-Heilbronn-Bad Friedrichshall - Würzburg/Mosburg-Nübingen arelz and to Schwäbisch Gmünd-Aalen.
The Stuttgart rail hub also includes the container terminal in Obertürkheim and the Kornwestheim marshaling yard, which has one of the most modern container terminals in the area of DB. Both terminals are part of the DUSS (Deutsche Umschlag-Gesellschaft Bahn-Straße).
In 1991 ICE high-speed trains started on the Hamburg-Frankfurt line on Main-Stuttgart-Munich. The new high - speed train from Stuttgart to Mannheim was inaugurated.
The controversial Stuttgart 21 project is fundamentally reorganizing the railway node. Among other things, some 60 km of new railway lines are being constructed and four new railway stations (new main railway station, new airport station, S-Bahn station Mittnight straße and the underground station Untertürkheim) are being built. In parallel, the new construction line Wendlingen-Ulm will be built. In 1997, the Stuttgart municipal council adopted the urban planning framework of the project, shortly after which the construction of first subdivisions began.
The public transport system (public transport) operates seven S-Bahn Regio lines (see: S-Bahn Stuttgart) and 17 metro lines (including two supply lines), a cog railway line, a funicular line and 56 bus lines from Stuttgarter Trams AG (SSB), line 101 from the Esslingen overhead bus at Neckar (operated by the Municipal Transport Company Esslingen am Neckar) and several bus lines operated by private transport companies. In addition, some regional train lines carry out urban transport tasks within the city (for example, the "Schusterbahn").
All these means of transport, including the cogwheel railway and the funicular railway, can be used at uniform prices within the Stuttgart (VVS) transport and tariff network.
During a census on 21 October 2014, around 827,000 road vehicles (up to 3.5 tons) passed the city border of Stuttgart every day. The number of vehicles registered in Stuttgart reached a new record at 348,103 at the end of 2014. In the accident statistics, the number of registered road accidents has also increased steadily since 2015, reaching the highest level since 1979, with 26,824 accidents (2017). After an increase to 73 hours per year, the city is ranked one of the most impressive agglomerations in Germany. The increase in congestion by 8.5 hours compared to 2014 is mainly attributed to the record number of 50,000 more registered vehicles in Stuttgart.
Despite Germany's highest traffic and traffic congestion risks, Stuttgart has few possibilities to bypass the city and has no motorway ring like many other German cities (see also Nordostring Stuttgart), which means that an extreme transit traffic has a heavy impact on the city center in the valley basin. This excessive traffic has a heavy burden on air quality and a high volume of CO2 and nitrogen oxides, and the city of Stuttgart has therefore been forced to impose a low-dust particle on several occasions.
The A 8 motorway (Karlsruhe-(S)-Ulm-München) forms the southern city border and the A 81 (Singen-(S)-Heilbronn-Würzburg) passes west of the city. From the Autobahn intersection in Stuttgart, both motorways will then run together until the Leonberg triangle, a few kilometers west, where the A 81 will turn again in a northern direction. This section has three to five lanes per direction, with huge traffic and a significant gradient.
At the Autobahnkreuz Stuttgart, formerly known as the Kreuz Stuttgart-Vaihingen, the straight-ahead direction of the A 81 is a short motorway that leads as A 831 to the exit Stuttgart-Vaihingen and further than B14 via the shadow ring towards downtown. This intersection is located on the Sindelfinger Marking; in Stuttgart the former head office of IBM Germany and the highest point of Stuttgart, the Bernhard Heights, is located there.
The B14 (Stockach-Herrenberg-Stuttgart-Schwäbisch Hall-Nürnberg-Waidhaus) and B27 (Blankenburg-Heilbronn-Stuttgart-Tübingen-Lottstetten), as well as the B10 (Eppelborn-Pforzheim-Stuttgart-Ulm-Neusäusäusäten), pass through the city center ß) and B 295 (Stuttgart-Leonberg-Calw). With the exception of the B14, they all join together on Pragsattel, the biggest traffic hub in Stuttgart city center.
The B 10 (direction Göppingen/Ulm), B 14 (direction Schwäbisch Hall), B 27 (direction Tübingen) and B 29 (from Fellbach towards Aalen) are each motorway-like and form a star-shaped structure of highways around the city.
A total of 11 expressways lead from Stuttgart's hinterland to Stuttgart's city center. These are:
- direction Karlsruhe
- direction Ulm
- direction Heilbronn
- direction Singen
- direction Vaihingen/Enz
- direction Göppingen
- direction Schwäbisch Hall
- direction Ludwigsburg/Bietigheim-Bissingen
- direction Tübingen
- direction Aalen
- L 1180 direction Gerlingen/Leonberg
Historical street names
Stuttgart's street names were changed in principle in 1811 and changed more often later. The older literature and the old newspapers and magazines inevitably include older street names.
Air pollution and air pollution measures
The measuring station "Am Neckartor" in Stuttgart has the highest exceedances of the daily permitted fine dust limit value in Germany every year. Between 2005 and 2017, the station had 41 to 187 exceedances of the daily limit value for PM10 per year. In addition, the measuring station has measured the highest nitrogen oxide load in Germany for several years, and the limit value in Stuttgart has been regularly exceeded by twice.
This is why an environmental zone was established in Stuttgart in 2008, with driving bans in place. In Stuttgart it is defined for the entire city area including all 23 city districts. Only some sections of the road, including the A 8 and part of the A 831, and sections of two federal roads, are excluded.
The obligation to place fine-particle plates on vehicles has been in force since 1 January 2006. March 2008. Since then, vehicles in the environmental zone have had to belong to at least group 2. 1. On 28 July 2010, the driving ban under the Labeling Regulation was extended to vehicles of category 2 (red plaque). 1. January 2012 is the green plaque and a ban on vehicles of category 3 (yellow plaque) applies. While the Baden-Wuerttemberg Ministry of Transport advocated a blue plaque, the Federal Ministry of Transport rejected it in March 2018.
In January 2016, the city of Stuttgart introduced the so-called dust arm. When the weather is good, citizens were asked not to use their car and to have comfort stoves turned off. Since then, the particle particle arm has been declared every year on certain days between October and April. During this period, there were discounts for public transport. After the air values improved, the last particle particle arm ended on 15 April 2020.
However, all these measures were not sufficient to ensure compliance with the emission limit values. The Stuttgart Administrative Court therefore sentenced the state of Baden-Württemberg on 26 June. July 2017 to complete the air pollution control plan for Stuttgart in such a way that it contains the necessary measures to ensure compliance with the limit value for NO2 as soon as possible. According to the court, diesel traffic is the main source of pollution from nitrogen dioxide in urban areas, with a contribution of around 85%. A significant reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions would require a significant reduction in traffic volumes, especially for diesel vehicles. Since no equally appropriate, milder measures would be available as bans on diesel vehicles but alternative means of transport, bans on driving would also be proportionate.
In February 2018, in the so-called Diesel judgment, the Federal Administrative Court overwhelmingly rejected the leap revision against this first instance court decision of the Administrative Court and ruled that cities may, in principle, impose bans on diesel cars for air pollution. According to a decision of the Stuttgart Administrative Court of 21 September 2018, the Baden-Württemberg government had to pay a fine of 10,000 euros in 2018, as it refused to implement the ban on diesel cars with the Euro 5 standard. On 12 November 2018 the Administrative Court of Baden-Württemberg (VGH) confirmed the decision of the Administrative Court that Stuttgart must immediately start planning driving bans for vehicles of Euronorm 5.
As of 1 January 2019, diesel vehicles from Euro 5 standards will in principle only be allowed to operate throughout the city. The residents of Stuttgart had a three - month transitional period. The inclusion of petrol vehicles that do not at least meet the Euro 3 standard, also decided, failed because of the opposition of the Confederation to the blue plate. As of 1 January 2020, the diesel ban on individual sections of the line was extended to vehicles covered by the Euro 5 standard.
On March 31, 1958, the Port of Stuttgart was opened by the President of the Confederation, Theodor Heuss. The four Neckar suburbs of Wangen, Hedelfingen, Obertürkheim and Untertuerkheim are located at the second largest inland port of the Neckar. After the 1968 enlargement, it became the most important trimodal transport hub (water, rail, road) in the Stuttgart region.
Stuttgart is considered a major media city. The head of the public service broadcaster Südwestrundfunk is based in the Funkhaus in Stuttgart. Two radio programs for Baden-Württemberg (SWR1 and SWR4) are produced there. In the TV studios, in addition to current magazines (e.g. B. Sport), especially the news programs for the Third Program and the Landesschau. The SWR radio programs are broadcast from the Stuttgart TV tower and also from the Stuttgart radio station for the city area, while the television programs have been broadcast by the Stuttgart TV tower since DVB-T was introduced. Stuttgart also has an additional regional TV channel with Regio TV.
Other audiovisual media (for example Antenna 1, bigFM, Die Neue 107.7, Freies Radio for Stuttgart) are also based in Stuttgart. Their programs are distributed by the Stuttgart telecommunications tower and the Münster power station fireplace. The AFN is also present because of the US military stationed in the Stuttgart region. In addition to Karlsruhe, Stuttgart is one of the two locations of the Landesmedienzentrum Baden-Württemberg, which is under the authority of the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sport in Baden-Württemberg.
In addition, the city is considered one of the leading locations for specialist publishers throughout Germany. Among other things, German Savings Bank Publishers, Ernst Klett Verlag, Kohlhammer Verlag, Metzler Verlag, Motor Presse Stuttgart and Georg Thieme Verlag are known throughout Germany. The largest Bible Publishers are located in Stuttgart with the German Bible Society and the Catholic Bible Works.
Finally, the Stuttgarter Zeitung, which is considered one of the largest regional newspapers in Germany, and the Stuttgarter Nachrichten as well as smaller local editions of other daily newspapers such as the Cannstatter Zeitung are published. Among the city magazines Lift appears once a month, while Prince Stuttgart can be accessed on the internet and Moritz - The city magazine is the most widely published city magazine in Baden-Württemberg.
Education and research
Around 11% of all research and development funds in Germany are spent in Stuttgart. In addition to the two universities (Stuttgart and Hohenheim), there are five institutes of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft (the second largest site in Germany), several Max Planck institutes and other institutions in Stuttgart. Much of the research landscape in Stuttgart has now been concentrated on the research campus in Vaihingen.
- The Karlsschule, founded in 1770 by Herzog Carl Eugen since December 1781 as the University of the Karlsschule, was originally located in the ancient castle of Solitude. She served as a military academy, art academy and later as a general college; It was dissolved in 1794.
- University of Stuttgart - founded in 1829, 1876 Polytechnic; 1890 Technical College; since 1967
- University of Hohenheim - founded in 1818 as an institution for agriculture and forestry; 1847 Academy; 1904 Agricultural College; since 1967
- Hochschule für Musik und Perstelleine Kunst Stuttgart (HMDK) - founded in 1857
- The State Academy of Fine Arts in Stuttgart (ABK) - the institution dates back to the "Académie des arts", founded in 1761 by Herzog Carl Eugen of Württemberg, which later became the Royal Academy of Fine Arts and finally the present institution.
- University of the Media (HdM) - founded in 2001 by the association of the "Fachhochschule Stuttgart - Hochschule für Druck und Medien - HDM" with the "Fachhochschule Stuttgart - Hochschule für Bibliothek- und Informationswesen - HBI" (founded in 1942), since 2005 Hochschule der Medien
- Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart (HFT) - founded in 1832 as "Württembergische Winterbauschule", later "Royal Bauwerkwerkeschule", then "Staatsbauschule Stuttgart", from 1995 Fachhochschule Stuttgart - Hochschule für Technik und since 2005
- Duale Hochschule Baden-Württemberg Stuttgart (DHBW) - founded in 1974 as a vocational academy
- AKAD University Stuttgart - founded in 1959
- Freie Hochschule Stuttgart - Seminar for Waldorf Education - founded in 1928
- FOM - University of Economics and Management - founded in 1991 (not headquarters)
- Hamburger Fern-Hochschule - founded in 1997 (not headquarter)
- University of Communication and Design - founded in 2012
- Macromedia University - founded in 2006
- IB University of Health and Social Affairs
- International School of Management - founded in 1990 (non-headquarters)
- IUBH Fernstudium Stuttgart - founded in 1998 (not headquarters)
- media Akademie - Hochschule Stuttgart - founded in 2015
- Merz Academy - founded in 1918
- SRH Fernhochschule - founded in 1918 (not headquarter)
- Steinbeis Business Academy - founded in 2001 (not headquarter)
- VWA College - founded in 2013
non-university research institutes
- Max Planck Institute for Solid-State Research (MPI-FKF)
- Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, former Max Planck Institute for Metal Research (MPI-MF)
- Fraunhofer Institute for Labor Economics and Organization (ILO)
- Fraunhofer-Institut für Bauphysik (IBP)
- Fraunhofer Institute for Border and Bio-Procedures (IGB)
- Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology and Automation (IPA)
- Fraunhofer Information Center Space and Construction (IRB)
- Research Institute for Motor Vehicles Stuttgart (FKFS)
- German Aerospace Center e. V., Stuttgart (DLR)
The provincial capital of Stuttgart is also a member of the Max Planck Society.
- Technische Oberschule Stuttgart
- Volkshochschule Stuttgart - diverse courses in politics/society, culture/creativity, health/environment, languages, professional qualifications, information and communication technology
- Stuttgart School of Economics
First Waldorf School
In 1919, the first Waldorf School was founded in Stuttgart by Emil Molt, the director of the Waldorf Astoria cigarette factory, and Rudolf Steiner at Uhland Heights, one of the Anthroposophy founded by Steiner and the humanist educational ideals following the joint school form which now exists in many countries of the world.
Since the end of World War II, several US barracks have been located in Stuttgart:
- in Vaihingen, the patch Barracks with the United States European Command (EUCOM)
- Kelley Barracks in Möhringen with the United States Africa Command (AFRICOM)
- in Burgholzhof the Robinson Barracks and former grenadier's boxes
- The equestrian barracks in Cannstatt were used as a dragon's box at the beginning of the 20th century. It was built over the remains of a Roman castle and was last used by the US forces as Wallace and McGee Barracks. After the release of the US military areas, military use ended.
The Bundeswehr maintains the Theodor Heuss barracks (formerly radio boxes) in the district of Bad Cannstatt. Among other things, the career center of the Bundeswehr (German Armed Forces) in Stuttgart, the MAD office in 5 and a branch office of the Federal Office for Human Resources Management (BAPersBw V Sz Süd) as well as the regional command in Baden-Württemberg are located in the Bundeswehr.
Stuttgart is the seat of the THW-Landesverband Baden-Württemberg of the Bundesanstalt Technische Hilfswerk. There is also a branch of the Social Security for Agriculture, Forestry and Horticulture (SVLFG).
Since 1874 the foundation Evangelische Altenheimat exists. The body-disabled association Stuttgart e. V. takes care of the integration of physically disabled people into everyday life with events, day-care centers and a travel service for the disabled.
Since 2012 Wolfgang Schuster (* 1949), who was Mayor of the city between 1996 and 2012, has been honorary citizen.
Sons and daughters of the city
- Gaisburger Marsch, a stew invented in Stuttgart's Gaisburg district
Stuttgart as name
The Hauptgürtelasteroid (264020) was discovered by Erwin Schwab on 17 August 2009 and was named after the city.